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Class _ 

Book—* ^_ 




Ijistori? or fll>\>tb ? 


Professor IirT^OWNSEND, D.D. 


The Chapple Publishing Co., Ltd, 



UBftAKY of GO*G*£SS 

Two Comas R«c*ived 

JUN 22 1904 

^_ Copynem Entry 


CLASii ft-XXo No. 

' COPY o 

Copyright, IQ04 
By Luther Tracy Townsend 

Efje JFort Sill $te*8 


176 to 184 High Street 

Boston, Mass. 












History and Myth 
I. Question Stated i 


III. Bible Allusions to Adam 3 

IV. Destructive Outcome if the Mythical 

Theory is Adopted 5 

V. Reinvestigation 7 

VI. A First Man no Myth; Evidence of the 
Unity and Common Origin of the Hu- 
man Race 8 

VII. Recent Appearance of Man on Earth 

no Myth n 

1. Evidences that Man did not Appear 

until after the Miocene, Pliocene and 
Tertiary Formations 13 

2. Nor until after the Culmination of the 

Ice Epoch; Testimony of Experts . 15 

3. And Not Earlier than from Seven to 

Ten Thousand Years Ago ; Testimony 

of Experts 16 

VIII. High Rank of Primitive Man no Myth . 19 

1. Evidence from Prehistoric Skulls . . 19 

2. Evidence from Archaeology and His- 

tory 20 

3. Evidence from Philology, Compara- 

tive Ethics and Religion 30 


vi Contents 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed Man; 

Theories of Evolution, Atheistic and 



I. Laboratory of Naturalism 37 

II. Naturalistic Methods 38 

III. Evolution a Fascinating Theory but 

Entirely Destitute of Proof .... 42 

IV. Four-Toed Horse and Java Skeleton . 44 
V. Biology and Evolution: Origin of Life 47 

VI. Biology and Evolution: Origin of Man 54 
VII. Evolution Combated by Eminent Sci- 
entists 58 

VIII. Recent Transmutation Theory .... 63 
IX. Recapitulation: Makeshifts and Fail- 
ures of Naturalism 64 

X. Present Strong Position of Orthodox 

Believers 72 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed 
Man; Supernatural Creation 

I. Christ the Creator of the Physical 

Universe and Author of Life .... 74 
II. Trinity 76 

III. Condition of the Earth just before 

Man Appeared; Scientific Point of 
View 7 8 

IV. Condition of the Earth just before 

Man Appeared; Scriptural Point of 

View 80 

V. Days of Creation and the Bible 

Record 81 

Contents vii 


VI. Christ in Eden and His Desire and 

Ability to Create Man 84 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed 
Man; Supernatural Creation ; Methods 

I. Transformation of an Animal into 

Man 87 

II. Bioplastic Creation 89 

III. Creation by Word of Command .... 90 


Method of Man's Creation Revealed in 
the Bible; His Physical Organism 

I. Literal and Pictorial Interpretations 93 

II. Man's Body Formed from Dust .... 94 

III. Man the Wonder of the Universe . . 96 

IV. Instantaneous Change of Clay to Flesh 98 
V. Possibility of Divine Interposition . . 98 


Method of Man's Creation Revealed in 
the Bible; His Animal Life and Im- 
mortal Soul 

I. Responsibilities Involved; the First 

Temptation 100 

II. Christ's Vision of Man's Degradation 

and Glory 10 1 

III. Provisions for Man's Restoration . . 102 

IV. Endowment of Endless Life; Man's 

Commission 104 

V. Man's Majesty and Solitariness in the 

Universe 105 

viii Contents 


VI. Evidence that Planets and Stars are 

Uninhabitable 108 


Creation of Woman; Naturalistic 

I. Naturalism Little to Say of Woman's 

Creation 112 

II. Creation of Woman First; then Man 

was Born 113 

III. Hypothesis of •' Ineffable Cleavage" . 114 


Creation of Woman; Bible Revelation 

I. Sleep of Adam Anticipatory of Mod- 
ern Scientific Methods 117 

II. Marriage of Adam and Beginning of 

Society 118 

III. Future and Endless Supremacy of Man 119 

Notes • 123 


It is possible and perhaps probable that the world 
is to witness shortly among nominally Christian peo- 
ple one of the most resolutely contested intellectual 
conflicts between belief and unbelief that has been 
known since the dawn of the Christian era. Of the 
outcome orthodoxy need have no fear. The primi- 
tive faith of Christendom never has failed to defend 
and reassert itself when attacked and it never has 
been in better position to meet assaults than it is 
to-day. By the very latest disclosures in different 
departments of science, Christian believers are now 
able to illustrate and defend orthodox beliefs that 
not a few clergymen and theologians hastily have 
pronounced no longer tenable. 

And, too, the readjustments of astronomical and 
geological theories during the last quarter of a cen- 
tury, which in every instance have been making 
for, rather than against, the beliefs of the primitive 
Christian Church, and the remarkable discoveries in 
archaeology which are affording the strongest possible 
defence for the credibility of the Bible, together 
with the fact that many of the ablest scholars are 
taking issue with much that is called higher criti- 
cism, ought to suggest that modesty, rather than 
egotism and dogmatism, is peculiarly becoming in 
those who are posing as leaders of modern thought 
and reformers in the theological world. 

And the recent discovery of radium, with its start- 
ling properties, which at the present stage of inquiry 


x Preface 

seems to be calling for a restatement of opinions as 
to the " atomic theory," the " indestructibility of 
matter " and the " conservation of energy," each 
of which had been thought to be firmly established, 
ought to lead the thoughtful naturalist to speak with 
increasing reserve as to what may possibly be back 
of all physical phenomena. 

Until, therefore, scientific matters are better estab- 
lished, and until destructive critics cease reproducing 
arguments essentially like those of Strauss, Baur 
and Renan that were abandoned a generation ago, 
the laity of the Church and the great majority of 
her ministers, who are still holding faithfully to the 
earlier views of Christianity, should not be con- 
demned if henceforth they utterly distrust the 
leadership of those who, though far from being 
thoroughly informed, are persistently seeking to 
undermine a faith that has been cherished through 
the centuries by some of the best and most intelli- 
gent people who have lived. 

A desire that those who are interested in these 
matters may be furnished with some of the results 
of the latest investigations in the fields of science, 
philosophy and criticism, and the conviction that a 
return to the doctrines of primitive orthodoxy will 
be beneficial to the world at large, as well as to the 
Christian Church, have led to the publication of this 
brief treatise, devoted to one of several subjects 
that soon are likely to be under vigorous discussion. 

History and Myth 

I. Question Stated. 

In the minds of not a few people there is at 
the present time a question whether the story 
of the creation, sin and banishment from Eden 
of Adam and Eve is veritable history or only 
a myth, or a so-called theological invention. 
And of late years, with many scholars and 
theologians there has been a pronounced ten- 
dency to discredit, not only this story, but 
all, or much else, that is supernatural in the 
Bible, though judging from the past there 
will be a reaction sooner or later, which pos- 
sibly already has begun. 


Upon a moment's reflection, however, it 
becomes evident that if supernaturalism, that 
is, God's active presence in the world, is dis- 
credited, then the story of Adam and Eve, 

2 Adam and Eve 

and many other Bible records as well, must 
be regarded as fiction, though as such the 
stories may continue to be, it is claimed, 
instructive and interesting. 

What, therefore, shall be the attitude of 
Christian people toward the Old Testament 
records of the beginnings of the human family 
is a question of more than ordinary interest 
and with not a few is one of much perplexity. 

That is, Christian people hesitate on the one 
hand to set aside the authority and integrity 
of the Bible, since it is like an old, serviceable 
and tried friend, containing much that com- 
mends it to the love and veneration of great 
multitudes, and on the other they do not 
like to be made a laughing-stock by some of 
their learned acquaintances, as certainly will 
be the case if they do not yield their primitive 
notions and accept those that are claimed to 
be firmly established by modern science, phi- 
losophy and criticism. " The leprosy of in- 
competence " is a phrase already applied to 
orthodox believers, as are also the words 
11 mental slaves M and other epithets no less 

Bible Allusions to- Adam 3 

III. Bible Allusions to Adam. 

What adds to the complications and per- 
plexities in case of Adam and Eve is that 
references to them are not incidental, but are 
essential to much else that is said ; nor are they 
confined to any one book of the Bible, but 
are more numerous and explicit than in case 
of a score of other noted Bible characters. 

Aside from the mention of their creation 
there is an account of their fall and banish- 
ment from Eden, a sketch of the beginning 
of their family, a statement of the number of 
years Adam lived and a notice of his death, 
followed by a list of his descendants, though 
this list is limited, according to Oriental cus- 
tom, to the eldest male members of successive 
families. 1 * 

But aside from what is recorded in the book 
of Genesis there are in different parts of the 
Bible other references to Adam. His name 
appears in the book of Deuteronomy (32:8); 
in the book of Job, where there is an allusion 
to the garment of leaves used after the 

* Notes in this volume are found in the appendix, and are indicated 
by the numerals I, II, III, IV, etc. 

4 Adam and Eve 

transgression (Job 31 : 33), and in the prophecy 
of Malachi, where the creation of Adam is men- 
tioned in connection with the plea of the 
prophet that the people of God should be 
faithful to their marriage vows (Mai. 2:15). 

In the genealogical table given by Luke the 
name of Adam stands at the head of the list, 
as if he were as much a real personage as any 
of the seventy-five others whose names follow 
his in that catalogue (Luke 3 : 23-38). 

In the gospel according to Matthew our 
Lord, while discoursing on marriage, speaks of 
the creation of both Adam and Eve and says 
that they were to be as one (Matt. 19: 4-6). 

In the epistle to the Romans Paul employs 
these words: " Death reigned from Adam to 
Moses " (Rom. 5:14). In the first epistle to 
the Corinthians he says that by the transgres- 
sion of Adam spiritual death came to the chil- 
dren of men, and that Adam was the first man 
and was made "a living soul " (1 Cor. 15 : 22, 45). 

In the first epistle to Timothy this same 
apostle speaks of the creation of Adam before 
that of Eve and of the disobedience in which 
the woman took the first step (1 Tim. 2:13, 14). 

Destructive Outcome of Mythical Theory 5 

And in Jude's epistle is the statement that 
Enoch was the seventh in succession from 
Adam — Seth, Enos, Cainan, Mahalaleel, Jared 
and Enoch being the others (Jude 14). 

IV. Destructive Outcome if the Mythical 
Theory is Adopted. 

Now it must be apparent to every thought- 
ful person that these different Bible writers, 
if honest and sincere, would not have spoken 
as they did had they not firmly believed that 
the record in Genesis recounted facts rather 
than myths ; and clearly the charge that Moses, 
Malachi, Luke, Paul, Jude and our Lord him- 
self treated fables as if they were matters of 
fact, or that they were guilty of handing on 
falsehoods, knowing them to be such, would 
be an impeachment of their integrity which, 
if established, would make their authority 
as religious teachers of the least possible 

As is well known, however, destructive critics 
do not hesitate to say that such really is the 
case; that the teachings of Bible writers are 
therefore of no more value than are those of 

6 Adam and Eve 

other ancient writers of fiction and myth, and 
that there is no help for it. 

But if these things are so, and if naturalism 
is correct, then there is no Bible that is of any 
special authority; revelations that have been 
held sacred are shadowed by uncertainty, and 
any one who is so inclined is at liberty to 
pronounce upon the credibility and genuineness 
of what one reads ; there is, too, no assurance 
that there was a divine Christ who rose from the 
dead; there is no certainty of an atonement 
through the death and sufferings of Christ, 
without which, according to New Testament 
theology, Christian people are yet under the 
curse of sins that they thought had been for- 
given. In other words, if the mythical theory 
is adopted, the foundations of the primitive 
Christian faith are all in a wreck. The story 
of Adam, the miracles said to have been 
wrought by Moses, the incarnation and life, the 
atonement and resurrection of Christ are dogmas 
that one is at full liberty to accept or reject. 

The critic is, therefore, making war upon the 
most vital things in the Christian religion. 
And, as it is well said, " Men who can look 

Reinvestigation 7 

calmly on while the surgeon amputates an arm 
or a leg begin to catch their breath and grow 
concerned when the knife, in a hand none too 
delicate and skilled, approaches the region of 
the heart.* ' 

V. Reinvestigation. 

But, before deciding hastily, to abandon 
opinions that have been long and sacredly 
cherished, and before following submissively 
to their logical outcome the assertions of crit- 
ics and skeptics, would it not be well for one 
to re-examine and test the new views by 
what is latest discovered in the world's prog- 
ress? May it not be that there are two sides 
to some of these questions and that the critic, 
the naturalist and skeptic may find them- 
selves and their theories beset with no fewer 
nor less perplexing intellectual and scientific 
difficulties than those that confront the orth- 
odox believer? 

In seeking an answer to these questions 
attention is called first to the fact that there 
are some things bearing on the subject under 
discussion that are not myths. 

8 Adam and Eve 

VI. A First Man no Myth; Evidence of 
the Unity and Common Origin of the 
Human Race. 

That there was a first man, whatever his 
name, Adam or something else, is not a myth. 
In other words, there must have been one man 
who stood at the head of the human race, 
unless ten or a hundred or a thousand sprang 
up in a sort of eruptive way at the same 

While this theory of an eruption of human 
beings in considerable numbers and in 
different localities has been advocated by a 
few scientists, notably by Prof. Jean Louis R. 
Agassiz, and is supported by some analogies 
in nature, yet it is no longer regarded as ten- 
able by those who have given careful atten- 
tion to these subjects. 2 

Tradition, comparative religion, compara- 
tive philology, the science of biology and that 
of physiology unitedly emphasize the unity 
and common origin of the human family. 

After giving a good deal of attention to these 
subjects, Prof. Alexander Winchell, in one of 

First Man no Myth 9 

his latest publications, speaking as a geolo- 
gist, employs this language: " I hold that 
the blood of the first human stock flows in 
the veins of every living human being.' ' 

Professor Farrar, on philological grounds, in 
his " Language and Languages " puts the 
matter thus: 

It can no longer remain doubtful to any reason- 
able man that the stately Brahmin, and the gay 
Frenchman, and the restless Albanian, and the Irish 
peasant, and the Russian serf, and the Lithuanian 
farmer, and the English gentleman, and the Dutch 
boor, nay, even the poor outcast, wandering gypsy, 
all speak languages which were once a single and 
undivided form of human speech, and are all sprung 
from ancestors who radiated from one geographical 
center which was their common home. 

In an introduction to Pickering's " Races 
of Men," Dr. John Charles Hall from an an- 
thropological point of view made use of words 
that he would have no occasion to change were 
they spoken to-day. " We are fully satisfied," 
he says, " that all the races of man are, as the 
Bible clearly expresses it, of one blood; the 
black man, the red man and the white man 
are links in one great chain of relationship and 

io Adam and Eve 

are children who have descended from one 
common parent." 

Dr. A. J. Butler, in his " History of Man- 
kind," says that " wherever the earth is 
inhabited by man we find people who are mem- 
bers of one and the same human race. There 
is only one species of man; the varieties are 
numerous, but do not go deep." 

Prof. John S. Hittelly in his " History of 
Mental Growth," speaking as a psychologist, 
makes the statement that " all men belong 
to one species. In all tribes and nations and 
in all stages of culture, man has the same gen- 
eral features of physical form and mental 
growth. He has the same number of pulse 
beats and of inhalations in a minute, the same 
average temperature, the same wants, the same 

Prof. Thomas Henry Huxley, in his " Cri- 
tiques and Addresses," looking at the subject 
from several scientific points of view, does not 
hesitate to say that those " who hold that the 
human race sprang from more than one origi- 
nal pair have as yet completely failed to adduce 
satisfactory proof of the specific diversity of 

Recent Appearance of Man n 

mankind. The assumption of more than one 
primitive stock for all is altogether superfluous." 
Johann Christoph Adelung, a distinguished 
philologist and librarian at Dresden, speaks 

Asia has been in all times regarded as the country 
where the human race had its beginning, received 
its first education and from which its increase was 
spread over the rest of the globe. Tracing people 
up to tribes, and tribes up to families, we are con- 
ducted at last, if not by history, at least by tradition 
of all old people, to a single pair from which families, 
tribes and nations have been successively produced. 3 

The evidence, therefore, that convinced 
these men of the unity and common origin of 
the human race, looking at the subject as they 
did from almost every point of view, cannot 
wisely be set aside ; indeed, it ought to satisfy 
any fair-minded person that there was a first 
man and that from him the entire race has 
descended. (Comp. Gen. 3 : 20.) 

VII. Recent Appearance of Man on Earth 
no Myth. 

It is a fact now well established that human 
beings appeared on earth for the first time not 

12 Adam and Eve 

very long ago. It is true that a few specula- 
tive philosophers have reasoned that the ori- 
gin of man dates back almost countless ages. 
Professors Geikie, Croll and Lyell in their 
estimates contended that man has been on 
earth two hundred thousand years. Prof. 
Thomas Sterry Hunt, from biological and 
evolutionary points of view, advanced the 
opinion that man has been on earth nine 
million years. But M. Launde, a French as- 
tronomer, outestimated them all, for, not 
being able to think of any way scientifically 
for starting the human family, reached the con- 
clusion that man was not started at all, and 
therefore is eternal. 

There is scarcely need of saying that one of 
these opinions is just as improbable as the 
other, and that there is not the slightest scien- 
tific or philosophical foundation for either ; on 
the other hand there is positive proof that man 
has not been here nine million nor two hundred 
thousand years, and much more proof that 
there was once a time when he was not here 
at all and therefore certainly had a beginning. 

The limits proposed in this discussion do 

Recent Appearance of Man 13 

not allow of an extended presentation of facts, 
hence expert opinion may again be resorted 
to in support of the views advanced as to the 
time when man appeared in this world. 

1. Evidences that Man did not Appear until 
after the Miocene, Pliocene and Tertiary 

Prof. H. W. Haynes, a careful investigator, 
after pointing out the mistakes made by geolo- 
gists in their estimates of man's history on 
the earth, says, " The evidence for the antiq- 
uity of man on the hypothesis of evolution 
is purely speculative, no human remains hav- 
ing as yet been found in either the miocene 
or pliocene strata/ ' 

" The miocene man," says Prof. Joseph Le 
Conte, " is not at present acknowledged by a 
single careful geologist." 

M. Reinach, another specialist, and author of 
" La Prehistorique," expresses his belief thus: 
" Have we any certain traces of the existence 
of an intelligent being in the tertiary period? 
Not one that is of such a nature as to carry 
conviction to an impartial mind." 

14 Adam and Eve 

Now, if it is kept in view that in geological 
history these terms, miocene, pliocene and 
tertiary, are used to denote deposits that are 
not nine million, nor one million years old, 
but such as were formed, speaking geologically, 
only a few thousand years ago, it will be appar- 
ent to every one that the date of the begin- 
nings of the human race is not so far off as 
some scientists have been insisting. 

From time to time, as is well known, dis- 
coveries of human remains have been made 
in California, Kansas and other Western states 
that indicate, it is said, great antiquity — from 
fifty to a hundred thousand years. But the 
conclusion reached by a more recent study of 
the caves in various parts of the United States, 
conducted by Prof. W. H. Holmes aided by 
a special grant of money provided for that 
purpose by the Carnegie Institution, is that 
there is nothing whatever to show that " man 
has been in America longer than four or five 
thousand years at the utmost/ ' 4 

And from another and distinct point of view 
the evidence is conclusive that the excessive 
instability of the crust of the earth down 

Recent Appearance of Man 15 

almost to the close of the ice age was such that 
man could not have survived, even if he had 
appeared at an earlier date ; his immense antiq- 
uity is therefore absolutely precluded. 

And geologists are now pointing to another 
fact that the cereal plants, such as barley, corn, 
rice, wheat and the like, which are invaluable 
if not absolutely necessary for man's suste- 
nance, are likewise recent, not appearing until 
the beginning of these latest geological periods. 

The same is true of certain trees, such 
as the fig and other fruit trees, the oak, 
poplar, palm, walnut and willow; these have 
no ancestors, but came recently, and appear 
to have developed on " a new organic prin- 

And to these late comers are to be added 
domestic animals such as cattle, the horse, 
dog, goat, sheep and the like. 

2. Not until after the Culmination of the Ice 
Epoch; Testimony of Experts. 

But one can do better still in fixing the first 
appearance of man, for it is now conceded that 
he has no place on earth earlier than the great 

1 6 Adam and Eve 

ice epoch. Prof. Edward Hall, secretary of 
the Victoria Institute of London, a specialist 
on these matters, in a recent announcement, 
June, 1903, says, " Not in one single case in 
the whole of Europe or America has a trace 
of man's existence been found below the only 
deposits which we have a right to assume were 
developed and produced by the great ice 
sheets of the early glacial periods.' ' This 
opinion is fully concurred in by Professors 
Haynes, Le Conte, Boyd, C. H. Dawkins, 
Dr. Gandry, John Evans, W. H. Holmes, M. 
Favre and by not a few others. Granting, 
therefore, that man did not appear until after 
the climax of the ice age, a fact at present as 
well established as any other in geology, and 
following the lead of experts as to the date of 
the glacial period, there can be fixed pretty 
accurately the beginning of the human family. 

3. And Not Earlier than from Seven to Ten 
Thousand Years Ago; Testimony of 

Prof. George Frederick Wright, who is ac- 
knowledged to be one of the best authorities 

Recent Appearance of Man 17 

in this country if not in the world on the 
glacial epoch, has reached the conclusion that 
it ended not earlier than from seven to ten 
thousand years ago. Prof. Joseph Prestwich 
collected much evidence which goes to show 
that the close of the glacial period falls within 
the limits of eight and twelve thousand years 
ago. The opinion of M. Adhemar and of Dr. 
James Croll is that it closed not earlier than 
eleven thousand years ago. Prof. Rollin D. 
Salisbury and Dr. Warren Upham, among the 
most recent of American geologists, think that 
from seven to ten thousand years ago is a fair 

In a review article (1904) Dr. Upham, speak- 
ing of the post-glacial era, says that " from 
the studies of Niagara by Wright and my- 
self, coinciding approximately with the esti- 
mate of Winchell and with a large number of 
estimates and computations collected by Han- 
son from many observers in America and 
Europe, it certainly seems well demonstrated 
that this period [post-glacial] is from seven 
thousand to ten thousand years." 

Dr. William Andrews is of the opinion that 

1 8 Adam and Eve 

the ice age, though lingering still in Alaska, 
in Greenland and on the mountain plateaus 
of Norway, was completed nearly as it now is 
11 not further away than from five to seven 
thousand five hundred years ago." The words 
of Professor Winchell are not only confirma- 
tory, but graphic and suggestive: 

Man has no place till after the reign of ice. It has 
been imagined that the close of the reign of ice dates 
back perhaps a hundred thousand years. There is 
no evidence of this. The fact is that we ourselves 
came upon the earth in time to witness the retreat of 
the glaciers. They still linger in the valleys of the 
Alps and along the northern shores of Europe and 
Asia. The fact is we are not so far out of the dust, 
chaos and barbarism of antiquity as we had sup- 
posed. The very beginnings of our race are still 
almost in sight. Geological events which, from the 
force of habit in considering them we had imagined 
to be located far back in the history of things, are 
found to have transpired at our very doors. 

Now let it be kept in mind that on this sub- 
ject these are among the very latest and most 
indisputable utterances of scientists whose 
high standing is unquestioned. It therefore 
turns out that in place of the now aban- 

Primitive Man 19 

doned estimates of man's antiquity based upon 
mud deposits, Nile pottery, flint chips, tumu- 
lus-dolmens, peat bogs, the kitchen middens of 
Denmark, lake dwellers of Switzerland, and 
other unreliable data, there stands the assured 
fact that man's arrival on earth was not 
much, if any, earlier than the historic dates 
given in the Bible. 5 

VIII. High Rank of Primitive Man no 

Another fact, quite troublesome to agnos- 
tics, evolutionists and free-thinkers of all sorts, 
that can no longer be treated as a myth, is that 
the first peoples of whom there is any historic 
account were splendid types of humanity. 
They had great physical powers. " There 
were giants in the earth in those days."* 

1. Evidence from Prehistoric Skulls. 

Taking the skull as the basis of compari- 
son, the evidence is conclusive that there has 
been no improvement or elaboration since the 
race began. 

Professor Huxley, describing one of the 


Adam and Eve 

oldest fossil skulls, says that " so far as size 
and shape are concerned, it might have been 
the brain of a philosopher/ ' 

Says Dr. Bruner-Bey, while speaking of the 
most ancient skulls yet discovered, " They 
surpass in size the average of modern Euro- 
pean skulls, while their symmetrical form com- 
pares favorably with the skulls of many of the 
most civilized nations of modern times.' ' 

Prof. Pierre Paul Broca, who made a very 
careful study of the celebrated " Cro-Magnon 
skull," which belongs to the earliest stone age, 

The great volume of the brain, the development 
of the frontal region, the fine elliptical profile of the 
anterior portion of the skull, and the orthognathous 
form of the upper facial region are incontestable evi- 
dence of superiority, and are characteristics that 
usually are found only in civilized nations. 

2. Evidence from Archceology and History. 

And, too, if one may judge from the works 
wrought and skill shown by those earliest 
peoples, a similar conclusion will be reached. 
The facts are that the first men of whom archae- 
ology and history give any account builded 

Primitive Man 21 

immense cities, invented systems of astron- 
omy and writing, constructed a time calendar, 
founded schools of law and medicine, gathered 
immense libraries, and could harden copper, em- 
balm the dead and do other things in ways un- 
known to the people of the present generation. 

The latest discoveries in the Babylonian 
valley by the Wolfe expedition, led by Dr. 
William Hayes Ward, and notably the exca- 
vations under Prof. Herman Vallrat Hilprecht, 
in the Nippur region, going back three and 
four thousand years before Christ, have put a 
complete negative upon all assertions as to the 
degraded condition of those primitive peoples. 

The French explorer, DeSaryec, likewise has 
brought to light hundreds of tablets that make 
it clear that there were in the Babylonian 
valley, nearly five thousand years ago, great 
business activity, peaceful diplomatic and in- 
ternational relations and a complicated pri- 
vate life that afford unmistakable evidence of 
a high degree of civilization. 

It appears, therefore, that on the banks of 
the Euphrates there were flourishing cities 
three thousand years before the founding of 

22 Adam and Eve 

Rome and nearly two thousand before Abra- 
ham left Ur of the Chaldees, which, long be- 
fore his departure from it, had also been a city 
of great importance. 

And it is gradually dawning upon the minds 
of thoughtful people that in those very primi- 
tive times man was in a civilized state not 
exceeded in any period of the world's history 
until late in the last century. 

On one tablet recently discovered in the 
Babylonian valley there are minute astro- 
nomical calculations as to the constellation 
Scorpion, and the place and movements of 
other stars are so accurately described that the 
astronomers of that time, 2300 B.C., in some 
respects seem to have been as proficient as 
those of to-day. 

The modern school multiplication tables are 
carried to the number twelve ; those of ancient 
Babylon reach the number sixty, while their 
more extended tables, particularly in astron- 
omy, in which are multiplications as high as 
thirteen hundred by thirteen hundred, are 
pronounced by modern scholars to be mathe- 
matical marvels. 

Primitive Man 23 

It is also found that children in these earli- 
est of schools even of the lower grades were 
required to master two languages, the one a 
learned, the other a colloquial tongue. Such 
the condition of the ancient Assyrian people. 

The civilization of ancient Egypt, though 
pretty well known, will justify a brief restate- 
ment of facts in support of the argument in 
hand. Though the public schools of Egypt 
were not of such a high grade as those in As- 
syria, though magic played a prominent part 
in the religious and intellectual life of Egypt 
and though mathematical science was essen- 
tially rudimentary, yet in prose and poetic 
literature there is evidence of mature and dis- 
ciplined intellectual powers even at the dawn 
of Egyptian history. The Egyptians, as 
Professor Ermans says, had " a mania for 
writing," and " her scribes were at work every- 
where." Neither Greece nor Rome has be- 
queathed to the modern world such a large 
amount of writing as Egypt. It should be 
borne in mind, too, that while the times of 
Moses witnessed the most brilliant era in 
Egyptian literature, there had been even 

24 Adam and Eve 

before that date two clearly marked historic 
periods, both of which had their culmination 
and decline, and both of which were charac- 
terized by a highly organized civilization, the 
earliest of which extended back twenty-five 
hundred years before Moses. 7 

Heinrich Karl Brugsch, one of Germany's 
most thorough and distinguished Egyptolo- 
gists, writing of early Egyptian civilized life, 
says, " Menes flourished 4455-4395 B.C., but 
in his time the Egyptians had long been archi- 
tects, sculptors, painters, mythologists and 
theologians. " 

Speaking of the age of the great pyra- 
mids, the distinguished English Egyptologist, 
W. M. Flinders Petrie, calls attention to the 
fact that the Egyptians were then complete 
masters of the arts of the combined labor of 
masonry, sculpture, metal-working, carpentry, 
pottery, weaving and of dyeing, all of which 
is clear evidence of a highly organized social 
life. As a matter of fact, ancient Egyptian 
skill, in the arts cultivated by her people, never 
in recent times, by any other people, has been 
surpassed. They had saws made of copper, 

Primitive Man 25 

with which they cut the firmest granite, and 
tubular drills with hardened points that could 
do the work of the modern diamond drill, 
leaving the hole and cone in better shape than 
do drills now in use. The work of the turning- 
lathe, too, was " fearless, powerful and surpris- 
ingly delicate " says a writer well posted in 
mechanics, while the skill displayed in build- 
ing the great pyramid of Gizeh continues to 
awaken the admiration and astonishment of 
modern builders and engineers. Fragments of 
Egyptian cloth of very ancient date have been 
discovered woven with threads of about one 
hundred hanks to the pound, with one hun- 
dred and forty threads to the inch in the warp 
and sixty-four in the woof. This harmonizes 
with the Old Testament record that Pha- 
raoh arrayed Joseph in " vestures of fine 
linen." 8 

And, too, the study of what has been un- 
earthed by explorers in other countries within 
twenty years is so fascinating as to tempt one 
to linger in this field longer than is really 
necessary to establish the point that is mak- 
ing. A brief mention only of the condition 

26 Adam and Eve 

of the ancient world outside of Assyria and 
Egypt must therefore suffice. There is no 
longer any doubt that a large part of the 
Arabian peninsula, also the central and south- 
ern portions of India, were inhabited by highly 
civilized peoples long before the migration of 
Abraham to Palestine. 

Prof. Archibald Henry Sayce, speaking of 
Arabia, says, " In days which, if Dr. Glaser 
is right, were contemporaneous with the exo- 
dus of Israel, man was in a cultured and pros- 
perous realm, the mart and center of the spice 
merchants of the East, w r hose kings founded 
settlements on the frontiers of Edom and whose 
people followed the art of alphabetic writing." 

Prof. Fritz Hommel gives expression to 
similar views, adding a thought of value to the 
friends of the Bible. "It is my conviction," 
he says, " that Arabia itself will furnish the 
direct proofs that much of the destructive criti- 
cism of the Pentateuch is absolutely erroneous/ ' 

In Persia, near Susa, tablets and cylinders with 
hieroglyphic inscriptions have been unearthed 
that are considered by Schell to belong to a 
period not later than four thousand years b.c. 

Primitive Man 27 

The Hittites, too, judging from their ancient 
hieroglyphic literature, monuments and sculp- 
ture, taking into account what appear to be 
contemporaneous tablets found among several 
sites in Asia Minor, appear as early as twenty- 
five hundred years before the Christian era to 
have been an enterprising and highly civilized 

Professor Sayce's recent work, " The Story 
of a Forgotten Empire," exposes to their very 
great disadvantage some of the bold assertions 
of higher critics. The critics affirmed, for 
instance, that the Hittites were a very rude 
and inferior people, altogether undeserving 
the distinction accorded them by Bible writ- 
ers. But the recent decipherment of inscrip- 
tions makes it clear that the Hittites belonged, 
precisely as the Bible represents, to a race 
whose name was feared as far as the western 
extremity of Asia Minor, whose capital re- 
sisted the arms of both Assyria and Egypt, 
whose civilization played a very important 
and leading part in the settlement of the 

They invented the circular seal and wrote 

28 Adam and Eve 

international treatises of peace upon plates 
of silver, and were workers of gold, silver and 
iron long before the times of the Egyptian 
ruler Ramses II. It is, therefore, no occasion 
for humiliation, at least on the ground of their 
civilization and great power, that the Hittites 
were friends of Abraham and allies of David, 
nor that Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah the 
Hittite, was the mother of Solomon and a dis- 
tant ancestress of Christ. 

The prehistoric civilization of Syria and 
Palestine in some respects approaches that of 
Egypt. Works in gold and silver, inscribed 
gems, altars and arks, were in general use in 
those countries centuries before Abraham took 
up his abode in Canaan. 

Discoveries, too, in Crete by Dr. Evans, 
keeper of the Ashmolean at Oxford, are of 
peculiar interest. They not only make it 
clear that Crete was the stepping stone 
between the most ancient civilization of 
Egypt and that of Europe, but that art and 
letters (not hieroglyphics, but letters) were 
cultivated in Crete at least two centuries before 
the time of Moses. Among the artistic treas- 

Primitive Man 29 

ures discovered on that island are " marvel- 
ously cut cameos, equal to the work done 
thousands of years later ; delicately chased jars ; 
statuettes of running boys and flying birds.' ' 
And as early as four thousand years before the 
Christian era there were royal palaces in Crete 
having sanitary arrangements superior to those 
in any city of America until within a very few 

There is at the present time, too, no ques- 
tion that the people who lived by fishing and 
hunting in northern Europe, the so-called 
paleolithic cave dwellers, were much superior 
to their descendants, the modern Esquimaux. 

And the prehistoric relics and ruins of Mex- 
ico, of Central and South America, with strong 
evidences pointing to their Asiatic origin, fur- 
nish no less conclusive evidence of a high order 
of civilization than do the discoveries made in 
other countries of the world. 

A recent writer on the early dwellers in 
America makes the remarkable statement that 
" in Peruvian caves have been found many 
skulls which bear marks showing that they 
were trephined by primitive surgeons. In 

36 Adam and Eve 

some cases a fresh growth of bone proves 
that the patients recovered ; in other instances 
they evidently died. Sometimes the hole thus 
made was filled with a plate of silver, in other 
cases with a piece of shell/ ' 

3. Evidence from Philology and Comparative 
Ethics and Religion. 

And, too, philological science has established 
the fact that there is a background of high 
civilization in the history of the various migra- 
tory peoples of Europe, as well as in that of 
those inhabiting nearly every other country in 
the world, a fact that makes for the complete 
overthrow of the naturalistic assertions that a 
race of inarticulate creatures at some period in 
the world's history was evolved into a race of 
articulate beings who, beginning with brute 
sounds, such as the neigh of a horse or bark 
of a dog, developed from those crude begin- 
nings existing human speech. 

If philological science clearly demonstrates 
anything, it is that crude and uncivilized 
tongues in every case bear the impress of a 
descent, rather than an ascent. 

Primitive Man 31 

And those who have given the most careful 
attention to matters belonging in the fields of 
comparative ethics and religion have no hesi- 
tation in saying that the ancestors of all the 
peoples of the East had moral codes of high 
standard and began their religious life with a 
true worship of the Supreme Being. 

11 In all the religions of ancient Asia," says 
Francois Lenormant, " the mysterious name 
[God] was considered to be that of a real and 
divine being, who had a personal existence 
and exclusive power over both nature and the 
world of spirits." 

In the earliest writings of the Egyptians was 
brought into prominence the doctrine of the 
immortality of the soul, and it was made a 
fundamental article in the religious faith of 
that people. 9 

The ancient Egyptians from childhood were 
taught, as children of Christian parents now are, 
from a religious catechism. The instruction was 
that all men must appear in the presence of 
the Divine Judge, and ought to be able to say: 

I have not privily done evil to my neighbors. I 
have not afflicted any, nor caused any to weep. I 

32 Adam and Eve 

have not told lies. I have not done any wicked 
thing. I have not done what is hateful to the gods. 
I have not been idle. I have not stolen. I have not 
committed adultery. I have not committed mur- 
der. I have given bread to the hungry, water to the 
thirsty, clothes to the naked, shelter to the stranger. 

And no one can read carefully " The Book 
of the Dead " without being profoundly im- 
pressed with the system of morality that it 
taught the people for thousands of years in 
the land of the Nile. 10 

Confucius, the Chinese philosopher (550- 
478 B.C.), instructed his countrymen in a splen- 
did system of ethics. Zarathustra (Zoroaster), 
probably about 800 b.c, taught the Persians 
that " holiness is rewarded by immortality 
and heaven, and that good thoughts, good 
words and good deeds are the object of moral 
striving.' ' But these men, though they may 
have added something to what they had re- 
ceived, were largely only handers-down of that 
which had been said by teachers of ethics and 
religion centuries before. 

And when the dumb tongue of inscriptions 
already discovered and others yet to be dis- 

Primitive Man 33 

covered is unloosened, and when mysterious 
hieroglyphics, not yet deciphered, found in 
America as well as in Asia and Europe, are 
translated, and when the tireless explorer has 
brought to light relics and works of art long 
since hidden from the eyes of men in different 
countries of the world, if one may judge from 
what already has been discovered, there will 
be additional and overwhelming evidence of 
the credibility of the records and revelations 
of the sacred Scriptures, and the fact will 
be incontestably established that the earliest 
inhabitants of the earth were of a perfect 
type, from both physical and mental points 
of view. 

And from what has been shown it can no 
longer rationally be questioned that the sciences 
of anatomy, of geology, of archaeology, of phi- 
lology, of ethics and of theology unite in demol- 
ishing all theories of naturalism as to the 
character and condition of the earliest in- 
habitants of the earth of whom there is any 

And the evolutionary hypothesis that the 
human race began in a savage state and slowly 

34 Adam and Eve 

worked up to its present condition, consuming 
in this development a hundred thousand years, 
more or fewer, is, in the presence of established 
facts, an assumption as groundless as anything 
one can imagine. On the other hand, a sudden 
emergence from a savage state to one repre- 
sented by the ancient civilizations of Assyria, 
Babylon, Egypt and that of many other coun- 
tries is not an emergence of which history 
shows any evidence. Hence the theory that 
the human family began high up in civilized 
and social life but afterwards suffered a deca- 
dence has probabilities in its favor that amount 
well nigh to an absolute certainty. 

What may be insisted upon, therefore, is 
this: There is no evidence of any kind that 
Adam, who throughout the Bible is spoken 
of as an authentic person, was not the first 
man ; there is no evidence that he did not have 
a perfect body and fully endowed intellect; 
there is no evidence that he could not give ap- 
propriate names to the animals brought before 
him (Gen. 2 : 20) ; there is no evidence that his 
son Cain did not build a city (Gen. 4: 17); 
there is no evidence that his grandson, Jubal, 

Primitive Man 35 

did not handle the harp and organ (Gen. 4: 
21); and there is no evidence that Jubal's 
brother, Tubal-Cain, and grandson of Adam, was 
not a worker in brass and iron (Gen. 4: 22). 

But there is no need of stating these matters 
in negative terms, for all discoveries in the last 
twenty-five or more years are in harmony 
with the Bible record that the first beings on 
earth that wore the human form had a body 
just as perfect, and a brain or an intellect just 
as capable of working, and a language just as 
complete in expressing thought, as those of any 
man now living. These are not philosophical 
nor theological speculations, but conclusions 
based upon established facts and reached by 
approved scientific methods. 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed Man; 

Theories of Evolution, Atheistic 

and Theistic 

At this point a question that as the years 
go on is growing more and more perplexing 
to agnosticism, free thought, naturalism and 
other forms of skepticism, though for fifty 
years men have been wearing their brains out 
trying to solve it, is this: How did that first 
perfectly developed man, who came on earth 
only a few thousand years ago, get here? 

Among the methods that have been devised, 
and the one that has had the most triumphant 
run, is that man was evolved from animals of 
a high order, which in turn were evolved from 
lower forms of animal and vegetable life and 
that those lowest forms were developed origi- 
nally from life germs, or monads, which theis- 
tic evolutionists, on the one hand, say were 
created by infinite intelligence, while natural- 
istic evolutionists, on the other, insist that they 


Laboratory of Naturalism 37 

happened to come into existence nobody knows 
exactly when or where or how, but, as these 
men usually say, by " some cause unknown 
to science." " 

I. Laboratory of Naturalism. 

But as organized beings must have had a 
beginning somewhere and at some time, natu- 
ralism has surmised that there was a sort of 
mighty laboratory that contained ingredi- 
ents that have entered into the composition 
of all organisms, and though that laboratory 
had neither professor nor assistant, it pro- 
duced under natural law the beginnings of all 
living things and that there has been an un- 
broken continuity from those beginnings to 
the conditions now found on the earth. Of 
the things contained in that laboratory, if we 
may believe all that has been said, were " bath- 
mism," " cosmic ether/ ' " cosmic emotion," 
" germplasm," " pangenesis," " protoplasm," 
" growth force," " vital force," " vital fluid," 
and that some of these or something else 
brought about " spontaneous generation." 
Here certainly are names and terms enough 

38 Adam and Eve 

to account for the beginning of things quite 
independent of God. 12 

But it ought to be said that not for five or 
ten years have these terms, once very potent 
on the lips of scientists and philosophers, been 
employed seriously by any reputable writer 
on these subjects. 

II. Naturalistic Methods. 

Nature's methods of procedure, too, as will 
be seen by the following quotations, are no less 
wonderful, according to certain philosophers, 
than the elements she has produced. 

It is now nearly two thousand years since 
Plutarch, in the following words, initiated his 
contemporaries into the resourcefulness and 
methods of nature: 

The insecable bodies or atoms, by a wild and 
fortuitous motion, without any governing power, 
incessantly and swiftly were hurried one against 
another, many bodies being jumbled together; upon 
this account they have a diversity in their figures 
and magnitude. After this manner the principal 
parts of the earth were constituted. 

Not very unlike this are the speculations of 
the late Herbert Spencer: 

Naturalistic Methods 39 

The different groupings of units, and the combi- 
nations of the unlike groups, each with its own kind 
and each with other kinds, have produced the kinds 
of matter we call elementary. . . . Certain of the 
ethereal waves falling upon them [carbolic acid, 
water and ammonia], there results a detachment of 
some of the combined atoms, and a union of the rest. 
And the conclusion suggested is that the induced 
vibrations among the various atoms as at first ar- 
ranged are so incongruous as to produce instability, 
and to give collateral affinities the power to work 
a rearrangement, which, though less stable under 
other conditions, is more stable in the presence of 
these particular undulations. 

Borrowing the thought and terms from Dr. 
Haeckel, a representative of those who speak 
as if having all knowledge at their finger tips, 
gives this explanation of the origin of animal 

The monar is said to be the simplest form of life 
that has yet been found. It has been described as 
an organism without organs. It is a kind of struc- 
tureless structure, a little mass of transparent jelly 
that can flatten itself out, and can expand and con- 
tract around its food. It can feed without a mouth, 
digest without a stomach, walk without feet, and 
reproduce itself by simple division. 

40 Adam and Eve 

By taking this monar as the commencement of 
animal life, or rather as the first animal, it is easy 
to follow the development of the organic structure 
through all the forms of life to man himself. 

But the very latest publication that sets 
forth nature's methods in producing organ- 
ized life (January, 1904) is by an American 
scientist : 

It is supposed that when the earth was very hot 
and cooling certain compounds of carbon and nitro- 
gen, called cyanogen compounds, were formed in large 
quantities and precipitated into the warm primitive 
sea. These compounds then entered into a reaction, 
which resulted in the production of protoplasm, and 
this reaction has been handed down from one par- 
ticle of protoplasm to another from cell to cell ever 
since. Although originally this reaction took place 
outside of protoplasm, it is now confined to it, since 
the conditions on the surface of the earth no longer 
enable it to continue outside. In my opinion this 
reaction probably concerns the cyanogen compounds 
which are produced in the course of the chemical 
changes in the cell, and this reaction in its turn pro- 
duces the complex proteids and other substances 
which give protoplasm its contractile and other 
powers. To make living matter, if this is true, we 
shall not have first to make albumin. Albumin is a 

Naturalistic Methods 41 

result of the reaction and not the cause ; nor shall we 
have to make a living substance, for, as has been 
shown, no such substance probably exists; but we 
shall have to duplicate a reaction in which possibly 
several substances are concerned. 

It is needless to say that this sort of talk, 
from Plutarch down, deserves, on both rhe- 
torical and scientific grounds, nothing better 
than the severest condemnation. And it is 
almost past belief that noted philosophers and 
scientists should persist most doggedly, and 
run themselves out of breath and good English 
speech, in order to elevate animals, degrade 
men and dismiss God from the universe. 

Naturalism in carrying to completion its 
theory insists, quite contrary to established 
facts, as already pointed out, that after men 
had emerged from the general life of the world 
and become a distinct species, they had at 
first little more intelligence than apes; that 
they lived in the open air, slept on the ground 
and in caves, ate roots, the bark of trees, frogs, 
snakes, or anything else they could pick up ; and 
that their posterity were savages of the basest 
sort, who by the slowest and most laborious 

42 Adam and Eve 

processes, extending through countless ages, 
have come up to the plane on which humanity 
now stands. 

III. A Fascinating Theory but Entirely 
Destitute of Supporting Evidence. 
Such is the most popular naturalistic theory 
of the origin and primeval history of man. 
While this scheme of developing the human 
race from the lowest forms of plant and ani- 
mal life, through natural selection, or by the 
survival of the fittest, has all the interest of 
a captivating romance, and while twenty or 
twenty-five years ago there were very few 
scholars, though occasionally one, such as 
Wigand, Kolliker, Nageli and a few others, 
who dared to raise their voices in protest 
against Mr. Darwin's views, yet to-day there 
cannot be found anywhere a fair-minded critic 
or scientist who will not admit that there 
has been no time in the last fifty years when 
this naturalistic theory has been in such a 
forlorn and ragged condition, or has had so 
little to commend it to general favor as at 
the present moment. It is surprising, therefore, 

Naturalistic Methods 43 

that philosophical and theological professors 
and writers who claim to be up to date should 
continue to speak of evolution, either theistic 
or atheistic, as if it were a scientific estab- 
lishment and as if it adds weight to their 
discussions, when carried into the realms of 
ethics, sociology and theology; and it is still 
more surprising that these men who profess 
to be liberally educated, who hold professor- 
ships in colleges and universities and who 
occupy the most important pulpits of the land, 
should continue to bewilder and mislead their 
followers with confident assertions that all 
scientific men and scholars are evolutionists. 

In the first place, every well-informed man 
ought to know that this is not true ; and in the 
second place, if true, it would make it all the 
worse for scientific men and scholars, for there is 
not one of them who will venture to say that 
there is a particle of evidence that a distinct 
species of animal ever has evolved into another 
distinct species, or that man has been evolved 
from any animal whose remains have yet been 
discovered. No connecting links such as evo- 
lution absolutely requires, and no remains out 

44 Adam and Eve 

of which such links can be manufactured, are 
known to the science of geology. It is now 
conceded, too, that advances in both the vege- 
table and animal kingdoms are made not by- 
gradual evolutionary transformations, but by 
jumps. Even Mr. Darwin makes this conces- 
sion: "We believe that nature does make 
jumps now and then." And ever since man 
came upon the earth the extinction of species 
and genera with no new ones to take their 
places, by jumps or otherwise, is found to 
be the invariable law of nature. 

IV. The Four-Toed Horse and Java Skel- 

We are not unmindful of the fact, however, 
that a few presumably educated men persist- 
ently, and as one is led to think perversely, an- 
nounce views that are no longer tenable. A 
Chicago University professor of paleontology, 
for illustration, recently published this state- 
ment: " The modern horse can be definitely 
traced through a series of intermediate stages 
to a primitive species having four toes on each 

Java Skeleton 45 

Here is an attempt on part of the professor 
to establish a transmutation of the species of 
a horse that he would have his readers believe 
applies to all other animals, also to man. But 
the facts in the case are that the fossil species 
of this class that have been found differ quite 
entirely from the modern horse, and what is 
worse for the paleontological professor is the 
fact that the very species that ought to con- 
nect those supposed earlier ancestors with the 
modern horse, thus forming the needed miss- 
ing links, are entirely unknown in geological 
history. These four-toed, three-toed and two- 
toed animals each lived their day and then 
forever disappeared. 

This same professor also ventured within a 
few months to offer in support of the evolu- 
tion of man the once famous Java skeleton. 
These are his words : 

A few years ago there was discovered in Java the 
skull and portion of a skeleton of a creature to which 
the name pithecanthropus erectus was given. Com- 
petent paleontologists and anthropologists to-day 
believe it to be a real connecting link between man 
and the lower animals. 

46 Adam and Eve 

The facts, however, are that during Sep- 
tember, 1 89 1, Dubois, a Dutch physician, dis- 
covered a tooth on the island of Java, about 
forty-five feet below the surface of the earth; 
one month later he found the roof of a skull 
about three feet from where he had found the 
tooth, and in August, 1892, he found a thigh 
bone forty-five feet farther away, and later on, 
another tooth. That is all that is known of 
the wonderful pithecanthropus, the link that 
connects man with the lower orders A year 
or two after these discoveries the world's fa- 
mous zoologists met at Leyden and among 
other things examined were the remains of 
pithecanthropus . 

Ten of those leading scientists concluded 
that they were nothing but the bones of an 
ape, seven held that they were those of a man 
and seven concluded that they were really the 
missing link connecting man and the ape. So 
that of twenty-four of the most eminent scien- 
tific authorities, only seven, not one third, 
ascribed any importance whatever to this 
pithecanthropus erectus. 

The explanation of this difference of opinion 

Origin of Life 47 

is, however, very simple. Prof. D. J. Cun- 
ningham, of Dublin, one of the highest au- 
thorities in Great Britain on questions of 
comparative anatomy, thinks it probable that 
these different bones do not belong to the 
same animal; that a part of them are those 
of a monkey or baboon and a part of them 
human. If this is the case then pithecan- 
thropus is simply a compound of human and 
monkey bones found in the same neighborhood. 
And it may be of interest to bear in mind that 
since that Leyden meeting pithecanthropus 
has quite dropped out of public notice until 
reintroduced by the Chicago professor. 

It would seem, therefore, rather a forlorn 
pass when the theory of the transmutation 
of species and evolution of man can find 
in the year 1904 no better support than the 
already defunct claims of scientists based upon 
a pre-glacial four-toed horse and an absolutely 
inexistent pithecanthropus erectus. 

V. Biology and Evolution : Origin op Life. 

The majority of leading biologists at the 
present time are looking upon the origin of 

48 Adam and Eve 

life, from the naturalistic point of view, as 
an unaccountable mystery. 

As is well known, Mr. Huxley abandoned 
his bioplastic theory soon after its announce- 
ment, and Sir William Thomson, with rather 
quick dispatch, surrendered his theory that 
life came to this earth by means of a mete- 
orolite from some star on which life already had 
an existence. The chemical theory, once ad- 
vocated by Herbert Spencer, was abandoned 
in the last edition of his " Biology." 

The attitude of the abler part of the sci- 
entific world at the present time is that of 
Professor Beale. " There is a gulf," he says, 
" between life and non-life that is unfathomable 
and I cannot believe it will ever be bridged." 

The words of the late Professor Tyndall 
indicate likewise the hopelessness of science in 
dealing with the origin of life : 

If asked whether science has solved, or is likely 
to solve, the problem of the universe in our day, I 
must shake my head in doubt. Behind and above 
and around us the real mystery of the universe lies 
unsolved, and as far as we are concerned, is inca- 
pable of solution. I share Virchow's opinion that 

Origin of Life 49 

the theory of evolution, in its complete form, in- 
volves the assumption that at some period or other 
of the earths history there occurred what would 
now be called spontaneous generation; but I agree 
with him that the proofs of it are wanting. I also 
hold with Virchow that the failures have been so 
lamentable that the doctrine is utterly discredited. 18 

French scientists, though at no time enthu- 
siastic followers of Mr. Darwin, are usually 
pronounced in their naturalism. It is, there- 
fore, quite in the interests of supernaturalism 
that the French geologist, M. Stanislas Meu- 
nier, in the Revue Scientifique (December, 1903), 
not only antagonizes all schools that hold the 
theory of a chemical or mechanical origin of 
life and the transformation of species, but 
argues in favor of special creation by an in- 
finite power. He thus closes his paper: 

Doubtless we cannot usefully risk any hypothesis 
on the mechanism of the production of living things ; 
but it is perhaps a step in advance only to come to 
the conclusion that the cause of life and its manifes- 
tations on the earth is exterior to the earth and that 
it is anterior to our world. 

It is rather surprising, therefore, at this 
late day, that a professor in the Wesleyan 

50 Adam and Eve 

University, Middletown, Conn., in a book 
entitled " Christian Faith in an Age of 
Science/ ' recently published, allows himself 
to employ the following method of reasoning : 

When we trace a continuous evolution from the 
nebula to the dawn of life, and again a continuous 
evolution from the dawn of life to the varied fauna 
and flora of to-day, crowned with glory in the ap- 
pearance of man himself, we can hardly fail to accept 
the suggestion that the transition from the lifeless 
to the living was itself a process of evolution. 

The fact is that there is no such thing as 
tracing " a continuous evolution from the 
dawn of life to the various fauna and flora of 
to-day.' ' Such continuous evolution does not 
exist. That theory, once held, it may now be 
said with confidence is forever exploded. 

A professor in the Chicago University, in an 
article just published (" The World To-day," 
January, 1904), is no less at variance with 
established facts. While arguing for the prob- 
ability of forming protoplasm by artificial 
means he says, " From recent progress we 
have every reason to feel encouraged and to 
look forward with confidence to the artificial 

Origin of Life 51 

formation of protoplasm/ ' The facts, on the 
other hand, are that there is not the slightest 
ground for encouragement in looking forward 
to any such achievement. Every effort to 
discover a basic protoplasm, or to invent it, 
has ended in utter failure. While continued 
and ceaseless experiment and investigation may 
be highly commendable in scientists, yet for 
them to say that from what has been accom- 
plished there is any encouragement that life, 
or the basis of life, can be produced chemically 
or artificially is scarcely less than a downright 
misrepresentation . 

One therefore runs little risk in saying that 
the recent claim of another American scientist 
that he has succeeded in creating life by com- 
bining salt, water and alcohol will die the 
death and have the funeral of all former 
attempts of naturalism to produce life or 
account for its origin. 

While it is true that much that is interest- 
ing as to life has been discovered, and though 
for ten years embryologists and biologists have 
been very active in their researches, still the 
question of the origin of life apart from the 

52 Adam and Eve 

disclosures of theology, appears at the present 
time to be even further away from solution 
than ever before. 

The bearing upon this discussion of some of 
the more recent conclusions of physicists as to 
the nature of life is such as to warrant the 
following brief statement: 

First. The coming of life into matter is 
as sudden as its death. There was, for in- 
stance, a day, an hour, an instant when life, 
human, animal or vegetable, was not; the 
next instant, it was. This is as true whenever 
non-living matter now becomes living as it 
was at the first appearance of life on earth. 

Second. So far as science can report, there 
is no life in existence that has not come from 
previous life. Heat, light and motion can be 
started afresh, — that is, where nothing of the 
kind previously existed. But not so with life. 
No reputable scientist will venture to dissent 
from the conclusion that " all matter that 
lives has proceeded from matter that lived 
before it, and there has been no exception to 
this since the time of creation' ' (Beale). 

Third. Life is impossible without water. 

Origin of Life 53 

The quantity of water required by living tissue 
is a surprise to every student of natural his- 
tory. But there was a time when there was 
no water on earth or in the physical universe. 
All oceans were oceans of fire, in which life or 
germs of life could neither exist nor originate. 14 

Fourth. Life is " a power distinct from 
all material properties, forces and agencies/ ' 
and is governed by no laws that control ma- 
terial things : that is, life belongs to a king- 
dom by itself. But the moment living matter 
dies it again is subject to the ordinary laws of 

Fifth. While thousands of natural agen- 
cies can destroy life, not one of them can re- 
store it. Dead matter can be dissolved and 
then be taken in hand by living matter and 
made to live again, but never without such 
dissolution and never without coming into 
contact with matter that is living (comp. 
1 Cor. 15 : 36). It would seem to follow, there- 
fore, that if all life on earth should now be 
destroyed, there could be no return of life to 
the earth except by supernatural intervention. 
And if life should cease throughout the entire 

54 Adam and Eve 

universe there could be no restoration of it to 
all eternity unless a living God who never began 
to be and who cannot die should interpose and 
create it. 

VI. Biology and Evolution: Origin of 


Biologists of the school of naturalism were 
never more perplexed than they now are at the 
mystery surrounding the origin of man. In- 
vestigations and discoveries in every direction 
are an embarrassment to them. A few illus- 
trations are in point. It is found that though 
there are twenty thousand or more species of 
animals, not one instance is known where differ- 
ent species have been crossed that the result 
has not been sterility in the animal thus be- 
gotten. The invariable law is that nature 
shall keep the species distinct. If, however, 
the theory of evolution is true no reason can 
be given why the world should not now be so 
full of animals in various stages of physical 
transformation that it would completely puzzle 
scientists in making their classifications. But 
as a matter of fact, the naturalist " finds no 

Origin of Man 55 

difficulty in placing each newly discovered ani- 
mal in its proper order." And, too, there is 
not the remotest evidence to show that any 
order of animals ever has reached, or ever can 
reach, a point where slowly or suddenly it can 
come into possession of a human soul, a human 
mind or even a human body. 

But more than this; it is at present the 
teaching of biological science that the struc- 
tureless germ of one species of plant never can 
evolve or be changed into the structureless germ 
of another species of plant and much less into 
that of an animal or a man; and that the 
structureless germ of one species of animal 
never can evolve or be changed into the struc- 
tureless germ of another species of animal, 
much less into that of a man. The structure- 
less germs of all life are at the very threshold 
of their appearance as immutable as the most 
highly organized forms of plant or animal life 
known in natural history. 

And, too, the immutability of animal types 
after passing from the germ stage is also now 
perfectly well established. Two French writ- 
ers, Messrs. Lortet and Gaillard, who have had 

56 Adam and Eve 

unusual opportunities for investigation, have 
published recently a book entitled, " The Mum- 
mified Fauna of Ancient Egypt." A reviewer 
of this book in the Revue Scientifique con- 
cludes thus : 

Whether we have to do with birds, fishes, mammals, 
or reptiles, we shall have no doubt after reading the 
works of Messrs. Lortet and Gaillard, regarding the 
proper conclusion to adopt. It is that in the Egyp- 
tian environment, very uniform, very constant, very 
stable, animals have not varied for five, six and 
perhaps for seven thousand years. 

The same is to be said of the human race. 
A writer who has examined relics recently dis- 
covered by Dr. Evans in Crete employs these 
words : 

I spent a long time studying the muscles and 
veins of the Cretan forearm of four thousand years 
ago, as shown in some of Dr. Evans' wonderful pho- 
tographs. Their arrangement is identical to the 
smallest detail with that of the surface veins and 
muscles in the arm that writes these words. These 
statuettes constitute, in my opinion, the oldest exact 
anatomical records in the world, and my study of 
them leads to the conclusion that in four thousand 
years there has been no change in even the minute 
details of the forearm of man. In other words, 

Origin of Man 57 

evolution, so far as it affects the body of man, has 

These are most interesting facts. But the 
writer's inference that the evolution of the 
human body continued for a while but stopped 
four thousand years ago, more or fewer, is 
essentially misleading; for there has been no 
evolution of the human body since the crea- 
tion of Adam except the ordinary and natu- 
ral growth of the body from infancy to 
manhood. And forever hereafter the evolu- 
tion, or rather the development, of the hu- 
man race will not be physical but is to be 
confined to the realms of the invisible and 

Another correlated fact is that in what is 
called " the primordial zone," which covers 
the earliest stage of biological history, are to 
be found the very highest type of mollusks 
known to science. The same may be said of 
the earliest fish, reptilian and mammalian fami- 
lies: they each " appeared fully equipped and 
in the plentitude of their power." After their 
appearance they improved in no respect, nor 
did they have any ancestors. They had their 

58 Adam and Eve 

age, then disappeared, often suddenly, and left 
no lineal descendants. 

And, too, as Prof. John S. Newbury has shown, 
not one " new species of flora has appeared on 
earth since the appearance of those that fol- 
lowed the great ice era." When, therefore, all 
these facts and the laws that govern them are 
taken into account one is justified in saying 
that it is doubtful if at any time in the world's 
history there has been a theory that has 
gained so great popularity with such an un- 
substantial basis as that of the evolution of 
man from lower orders. 

VII. Evolution Combated by Eminent 

In making good this statement, attention is 
called to expert opinion, of which there is at 
present a large and increasing amount. 

Says Professor Huxley, and certainly no 
scientist will lightly esteem his words: 

After much consideration, and with assuredly 
no bias against Mr. Darwin's views, it is my clear 
conviction that, as the evidence now stands, it is 
not proved that a group of animals having all the 
characteristics exhibited by species in nature ever 

Evolution Combated by Scientists 59 

has been originated by selection, whether artificial 
or natural. 

The late Professor Virchow, of Berlin, 
unquestionably the highest authority in physi- 
ology in Germany, at one time a thorough- 
going materialist and pronounced advocate 
of Haeckel's views, subsequently in his famous 
lecture on " Freedom of Science " entirely aban- 
doned some of his earlier views. Speaking of 
evolution he said: 

It is all nonsense ; you are as far as ever you were 
from establishing any connection between man and 
the ape. There always exists a sharp line of de- 
marcation between man and the ape. We cannot 
pronounce it proved by science that man descends 
from the ape or from any other animal. 

At the last convention of anthropologists 
held in Vienna, Virchow confirmed what he 
had previously said in these words : 

The attempt to find the transition from animal 
to man has ended in total failure. The middle link 
has not been found and will not be found. Man is 
not descended from the ape. It has been proved 
beyond a doubt that during the past five thousand 
years there has been no noticeable change in mankind. 

St. George Mivart, late professor of biology 

6o Adam and Eve 

in University College, Kensington, and author 
of several scientific treatises, employs this lan- 

With regard to the conception as put forward by 
Mr. Darwin, I cannot truly characterize it except 
by an epithet I employ with great reluctance. I 
weigh my words, and have present to my mind the 
many distinguished naturalists who have accepted 
the notion, and yet I cannot call it anything but a 
puerile hypothesis. 

Dr. Etheridge, of the British Museum, one 
of England's most famous experts in fossil- 
ology, has passed a no less severe criticism upon 
evolution : 

In all this great museum there is not a particle 
of evidence of transmutation of species. Nine tenths 
of the talk of evolutionists is sheer nonsense, not 
founded on observation and wholly unsupported by 
fact. This museum is full of proofs of the utter 
falsity of their views. 

Prof. Lionel S. Beale, physiologist, micros- 
copist and professor of anatomy and pathol- 
ogy in Kings College, London, stands to-day 
with Lord Kelvin at the head of English scien- 
tists, and in his wSpecial field is almost without 
a peer in the world. While addressing the 

Evolution Combated by Scientists 61 

Victoria Institute of London the last of June, 
1903, he employed these words: 

The idea of any relation having been established 
between the non-living and living, by a gradual ad- 
vance from lifeless matter to the lowest forms of life 
and so onwards to the higher and more complex, has 
not the slightest evidence from the facts of any sec- 
tion of living nature of which anything is known. 
Man is man from the earliest period of his existence 
as a structureless germ [comp. 1 Cor. 15: 38, 39], 
and there is no evidence that he has descended from, 
or is or was, in any way specially related to any other 
organism in nature through evolution or by any other 
process. In support of all naturalistic conjectures 
concerning man's origin, there is not at this time a 
shadow of scientific evidence. 

Professor Fleischmann, of Erlangen, one of 
the several recent converts to anti-Darwinism, 
in a book just published in Leipsic, " Die Dar- 
win'sche Theorie," reaches the conclusion that 
" the Darwinian theory of descent has not a 
single fact to confirm it in the realm of nature. 
It is not the result of scientific research, but 
purely the product of the imagination." 

But perhaps the most interesting and re- 
markable confirmation of the views just ex- 

62 Adam and Eve 

pressed is from Prof. Ernst Haeckel, who is 
classed among the ablest and most pronounced 
naturalistic evolutionists of recent date. In his 
latest utterances he bewails the fact that he is 
standing almost alone. " Most modern investi- 
gators of science have come to the conclusion/' 
he says, " that the doctrine of evolution and 
particularly Darwinism is an error and cannot 
be maintained.' ' Then he enumerates the 
names of several distinguished men, such as 
Drs. E. Dennert and Goette, Edward von 
Hartmann and Edward Hoppe, Professors 
Paulson and Rutemeyer, W. Max Wundt and 
Zoeckler, whom he calls the " bold and talented 
scientists " who have abandoned the views of 
Darwin, though there was a time when they 
advocated them. 

Such the facts and fate of both naturalistic 
and theistic evolution. And yet there are men 
on the street, in the literary circle, in the school- 
room and in the pulpit who are continuing to 
talk as if the theory of evolution still has a 
respectable standing in the world. Whether 
this is evidence of ignorance, or perversity 
one is unable to make out. 15 

Recent Transmutation Theory 63 

VIII. Recent Transmutation Theory. 

Attention is next called to what would seem 
a desperate if not final attempt on the part of 
naturalists to account for the origin of man. 
The credit or discredit of this latest move, 
made evidently to meet a scientific difficulty, 
that of bringing man upon the earth within the 
time limits demanded by geology and biology, 
is to be accorded to a professor in Yale College. 

Compelled to admit that man could not have 
been developed by the slow process of either 
theistic or atheistic evolution, the professor 
states his views substantially thus : 

During the cold and frost of the ice age all land 
animals, including apes and monkeys, were driven 
from northern to southern latitudes. After a time 
they reached Southern Europe and were there hemmed 
in by ice on the north and the Mediterranean Sea on 
the south. Later, the higher order of apes were 
compelled to leave the trees that were becoming 
destitute of fruit and seek sea foods, dig for nuts and 
roots, or starve. Amid these desperate straits, in 
which an innumerable number perished, a few of 
them began to lift themselves on their hind legs in 
order to increase their range of vision; they found, 
after a while, that they could look about and walk 

64 Adam and Eve 

at the same time. In this struggle for subsistence 
and existence the more enterprising, two or three 
or more, male and female, of course became human 
beings of low order but still human beings capable of 
development and propagation. 

Such is one of the latest devices of natural- 
istic science and of an American university 
professor to get man on the earth. The mild- 
est criticism that can be passed on this hypoth- 
esis is that it does not have the support of 
one single established fact in geology, in bi- 
ology, in zoology, in archaeology or in any other 
department of science upon which to rest hand 
or foot. 16 

IX. Recapitulation; Makeshifts and Fail- 
ures of Naturalism. 

One is now in a position to recapitulate and 
briefly point out the makeshifts and failures 
of naturalism — the theory that nature does 
everything without the intervention of God — 
in its contentions with supernaturalism — the 
theory that God is constantly supervising the 
affairs of the world of nature and no less 
the affairs of mankind. In its most radical 
type naturalism is atheistic, and insists 

Makeshifts of Naturalism 65 

that creative power and universal superintend- 
ence are not of God but are involved in the 
nature of things. In its more conservative 
attitude naturalism admits God into the uni- 
verse, but after life and other things are 
started they are allowed to develop and gov- 
ern themselves, more or less, without interfer- 
ence or interposition. 

Supernaturalism, on the other hand, insists 
that there is a Creator; that he is infinite, all- 
wise and everywhere present; that he is the 
author of life; that there is nothing that he 
does not personally and with the utmost care 
superintend, even to the flight and fall of a 
sparrow, and that his control is absolute and 
constant over everything in the universe ex- 
cept the will of intelligent beings, and even 
over this he exercises a measure of restraint 
(Ps. 76:10). 

In support of this ancient faith are found at 
present not theologians alone, but men who have 
devoted their lives to scientific and philosophi- 
cal investigations and who rank the highest 
of any in the world in their special departments 
of labor. 

66 Adam and Eve 

In an address already quoted (June, 1903), 
Professor Beale speaks thus for the ancient 
faith of Christendom: 

There is not a particle of living matter of any kind 
which can be explained except on the view that it 
depends upon God. The living particles themselves, 
and their action during life, can only be reasonably 
accounted for by attributing them to vital power 
created, sustained and regulated from the beginning 
by the living God. The infinite, designing, direct- 
ing, sustaining power of the eternal living God, as it 
seems to me, looking from the science side only, must 
be acknowledged in every kind of living matter and 
at every period of life. 

Quite as pronouncedly, too, does Lord Kel- 
vin, in a recent address (May, 1903), state his 
belief : 

Forty years ago I asked Liebig, walking some- 
where in the country, if he believed that the grass 
and flowers which we saw around us grew by mere 
chemical force. He answered: " No; no more than 
I can believe that a book of botany describing them 
could grow by mere chemical force." 

It is not in dead matter that men live, move and 
have their being, but in a creative and directive 
power which science compels us to accept as an 
article of faith. Is there anything so absurd as to 

Makeshifts of Naturalism 67 

believe that a number of atoms, by falling together 
of their own accord could make a crystal, a microbe 
or a living animal? 

Professor Agassiz in his " Essay on Classi- 
fication " puts the matter tersely: 

Until it can be proven that matter can think and 
feel and choose, I take the existence of thought not 
our own in nature as proof of the existence in nature 
of a personal thinker not ourselves. 

The late George John Romanes, Fullerian 
professor of physiology at the Royal Institu- 
tion, wrote in 1888 one of the most trenchant 
books in existence against supernaturalism, 
but after further study changed his views 
entirely, and died, in 1894, confessing his faith 
not only in the controlling providence of God, 
but also in the deity of Christ. 

A more beautiful and humble confession of 
faith than that of Professor Huxley, just pub- 
lished in his " Life and Letters" (1903), could 
scarcely be asked. " Science seems to me," 
he says, " to teach in the highest and strongest 
manner the great truth which is embodied in 
the Christian conception of an entire surrender 
to the will of God." 

68 Adam and Eve 

From present indications, therefore, one may 
rest assured that the day of which the dis- 
tinguished bacteriologist Pasteur wrote is hav- 
ing its dawn: " Posterity will one day laugh 
at the foolishness of modern materialistic phi- 
losophers. The more I study nature, the more 
I stand amazed at the works of the Creator/ ' 

Naturalism also has contended that man is 
an evolution, while supernaturalism has held 
that he is a creation. The battle on this sub- 
ject has been fought as already shown, and 
nothing in the scientific world is better estab- 
lished than this proposition, — that man's first 
appearance on earth was eruptive and that for 
him no lineal or physical ancestry as yet has 
been discovered, though in the earlier crea- 
tions there were repeated prophecies of his 
coming. And one of the most inexcusable 
mistakes of evolutionists, one that has re- 
sulted in all sorts of erroneous speculations, is 
their failure to distinguish between the prophe- 
cies or anticipations in nature and lineal or 
organic connections. While the coming of man 
has been prefigured in nearly all living organ- 
isms, even in the lowest forms, yet an organic 

Makeshifts of Naturalism 69 

connection no more exists between those forms 
and man than one exists between the quartz 
crystal with its root-like base and an oak 
tree. 17 

Naturalism has also assumed that man is an 
animal like all others, though having for dis- 
tinguishing characteristics faculties and powers 
more fully developed than those of any of 
the lower orders. A representative formula of 
naturalism is that " man is an animal and dif- 
fers only from other animals in a more highly 
developed social and intellectual life." 

Supernaturalism, on the other hand, has 
argued that man in some respects is essen- 
tially distinct from everything else in creation. 
On psychological grounds this distinction gen- 
erally has been conceded, but not on those that 
are physiological. Recently, however, physi- 
ologists are changing their attitude and con- 
forming more and more to what seems the 
Scriptural view. No one is better qualified to 
speak on this subject than Professor Beale. 
In one of his latest addresses he says: 

The life-power, mind and intellect of man make 
it certain that he is a being absolutely distinct from 

70 Adam and Eve 

all other organisms in living nature. But more than 
this, the actions of those bioplasts and tissues be- 
longing to man's nervous system cannot be com- 
pared with anything else in nature; from which we, 
perhaps, may be able to deduce what is man's true 
place and his relation to his Creator [comp. i Cor. 
6: 15, 19, 20; 2 Cor. 6: 16]. 

A more critical study of the history of natu- 
ralism discloses the fact that its supporters 
frequently have been at variance among them- 
selves. The materialist, for instance, took the 
ground, and held it for years, that if there were 
provided matter and force he could account 
for the universe and everything in it. But the 
biologist at length saw that this position could 
not be maintained, and acknowledged, even if 
matter and force were accounted for, they 
alone could not produce a single existing form 
of organized life. 

But still holding to his naturalism, the biol- 
ogist reasoned that if matter, force and life 
were provided, and if fifty billion years more, 
or fewer, were allowed for the evolution of 
things, he would be able to explain the con- 
struction of the universe and show how man 
came upprx the earth. In making this plea it 

Failures of Naturalism 71 

will be noticed that much is assumed. Force 
and life, say nothing of matter, have not yet 
been accounted for by the naturalist, which 
should be done before building very much of a 

Later, however, geologists and leaders in 
other fields of science felt obliged to take issue 
with the biologist on this ground, that the 
earth-period is not illimitable; that "the mil- 
lions of millions of years " required for the 
natural development of living organisms as 
now constituted cannot be granted, even if 
matter, force and life are provided, and that 
even twenty thousand years will exceed the 
time-limit for the development of man. 

There seems to be left, therefore, nothing 
better for naturalism than that wretchedly 
unscientific hypothesis of the Yale professor, of 
a sudden or eruptive transformation or jump of 
a monkey into a man. It is, however, confes- 
sedly a pitiable condition in which skeptical sci- 
entists, who began their battle with an almost 
appalling blast of trumpets, now find them- 
selves. They have sought by every possible 
means to discredit and overwhelm supernatu- 

72 Adam and Eve 

ralism. They not only signally have failed in 
this, but in all their investigations have not 
succeeded in contributing anything whatever 
to the world's knowledge of the origin of things, 
or of the method by which man came upon the 

X. Present Strong Position of Orthodox 

The Christian believer at the present hour 
is in a position, therefore, as never before, to 
challenge the whole world of naturalists to 
disprove a single statement in the first five 
books of the Bible, so far as they relate to the 
origin, condition and history of the peoples 
who earliest inhabited the earth. He is also 
in position to challenge skeptics of every type 
to place their fingers upon one solitary thing 
that has been discovered in the last hundred 
years of investigation that calls for the least 
change or modification in the first ten words 
of the book of Genesis: " In the beginning God 
created the heavens and the earth/ * 

With these facts well in mind that are now 
firmly established, and with the strongest pos- 

Strong Opposition of Believers 73 

sible enforcement of supernaturalism by the 
ablest late and living scientists, the skeptic is 
clearly disregardful of scientific and philosoph- 
ical evidence and methods if he calls in ques- 
tion the recent specific words as to the origin 
of man spoken by a careful investigator and 
thorough-going scientist: " Man originated 
through supernatural interposition at a com- 
paratively recent date, in Central Asia." That 
is a conclusion which must stand until scien- 
tific evidence not now at command can be pre- 
sented to disprove it. 

At this point, as one readily can see, the dis- 
cussion, so far as the supernatural origin of 
man is concerned, could be brought to a close. 
But if this were done, those interested in Chris- 
tian theology would not be satisfied, for the 
sacred Scriptures, which are the basis of Chris- 
tian theology, invite man to enter realms that 
extend a long way beyond the boundaries thus 
far outlined, and besides, it is not quite fair for 
one to tear down theories, though it is fre- 
quently done, and leave none in their place. 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed Man; 
Supernatural Creation 

I. Christ the Creator of the Physical 
Universe and Author of Life. 

No reader of the Bible, whatever his at- 
titude towards it, whether that of belief or 
disbelief, can doubt that Christ is represented 
as the Creator of everything in the material 
and visible universe. In the gospel according 
to John are these explicit announcements: 
" All things were made by him; and without 
him was not any thing made that was made; 
he was in the world, and the world was made 
by him " (John i : 3, 10; comp. John 14: 2). 

In the epistle to the Colossians are words at 
once explicit and sublime: " For by him were 
all things created, that are in heaven, and that 
are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they 
be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or 
powers: all things were created by him, and 


Christ the Creator 75 

for him: and he is before all things, and by him 
all things consist " (Col. 1:16, 17; comp. 
Eph. 3:9; Heb. 1:10; 1 Cor. 8:6). 

Christ is also represented in the New Testa- 
ment as the author of life. In the gospel ac- 
cording to John there is this reading: " In him 
was life; and the life was the light of men " 
(John 1:4; comp. Job 33:4). Christ calls 
himself " the bread of life " and says that he 
11 giveth life unto the world " (John 6: 33, 35). 
And Peter speaks of Christ as " the Prince of 
life " (Acts 3: 15). While some of these pas- 
sages clearly relate to spiritual life, others be- 
yond reasonable question refer to every possible 
form of life. 

In view, therefore, of the utter inability of 
science to solve the mystery and origin of life, 
and in view of the facts established as to life, 
it would seem that the following Bible revela- 
tions, with the best of reasons, may continue 
to hold their place in Christian belief: The 
life of Christ is eternal (John 5:26; Rev. 22: 
5); the life of all things on earth, including 
that of Adam, originated with Christ (John 
6:33), and men now live and move and have 

76 Adam and Eve 

their being in him and in him alone (Col. i: 
17; comp. pp. 47-54). 

II. The Trinity. 

The teaching of theology that Christ is the 
Creator of things and author of life involves 
the doctrine of the trinity; a few words, there- 
fore, in explanation may be allowed. The- 
ology does not teach that the trinity is 
mathematical ; that would not be a theological 
trinity at all, but tritheism. What theology 
teaches is that the trinity is metaphysical. 
That is, the Divine One has a threefoldness, or 
a threefold consciousness, represented by the 
terms, Father, Son and Holy Ghost. And as 
there is but one universe, though there are in 
it three and only three fundamental distinc- 
tions, — law, force and manifestation, — so there 
is but one God, though in that Godhead there 
are three and only three distinctions. 

An illustration may make this somewhat 
clearer. A tree has solid matter — leaves, bark 
and wood fiber, all of which are visible. In 
addition there are in the building of the tree 
force and law. It is force that does the build- 

The Trinity 77 

ing ; it is law that governs the building. Hence 
in its essential composition the tree is a 
trinity; and these three factors and nothing 
else, two of which are invisible, enter into the 
constitution of the tree. The same may be 
said of every material object in the universe. 
Whatever the object, an invisible law governs 
it, an invisible force builds, grows or controls 
it, and the material out of which the thing is 
made is the third factor, the one that reveals 
the existence of the other two — law and force. 
Such is the universal trinity, which is also a 
type of the divine or theological trinity. 
(Comp. Rom. 1 : 20. ) 18 

It follows from what has been said that 
there is no visible manifestation of the God- 
head on earth or in heaven, and no form of 
organized life in the universe that does not 
depend upon and is not caused by that dis- 
tinction of the trinity called the Son, the Word, 
the Christ, and upon him alone. " He that hath 
seen me hath seen the Father " is an announce- 
ment that with peculiar significance shows 
the relation existing between the ever-invisible 
Father and the ever-creating or manifesting Son. 

78 Adam and Eve 

III. The Condition of the Earth just be- 
fore Man Appeared; the Scientific 
Point of View. 

The earth before man's arrival had been in 
existence during periods that are difficult of 
comprehension. It had been part and parcel 
of the fire-mist from which had developed 
suns, planets and satellites. It had passed 
through the age of fishes, the age of amphibia, 
the age of monster reptiles, the age of enor- 
mous birds and that of the pre-glacial mam- 
malia. There had followed the age of ice, 
extending, as has been estimated, through at 
least three hundred thousand years, closing 
about ten thousand years ago ; soon after this 
the earth took on conditions much like those 
existing at the present time. 

The frosts of the ice age and the terrestial 
disturbances that occurred during its clos- 
ing years were appallingly destructive. In 
North America, north of the middle United 
States, the ice was from five to ten thousand 
feet in thickness, with a freezing temperature 
well down into the Gulf of Mexico. " The 

Scientific Point of View 79 

accumulated cold of years bound all northern 
latitudes in indissoluble bonds of ice. Animals 
of all sizes and kinds huddled together in caves 
and perished miserably together there. Gla- 
ciers brooded over all the land and desolation 
reigned without a rival over half the North 
American continent " (Professors Winchell and 

In South America the ice sheet extended 
from the south pole to 37 south latitude. The 
British Isles, northwestern Europe, northern 
and southern Asia, were likewise buried under 
immense fields of ice. " The ice epoch,' ' says 
a distinguished American geologist, " was one 
of the most destructive and sweeping catas- 
trophic epochs in the earth's history." The 
large mammals that lived before the ice age 
were destroyed, leaving abundant proofs of 
their existence, but no descendants. Pre- 
glacial insects, especially of the beetle family, 
and even the land snails of that epoch entirely 
disappeared during the reign of frost. 

So, too, the effects of the freeze on plant life 
were equally disastrous, and, as already pointed 
out, grain-foods and a great variety of trees 

So Adam and Eve 

now filling the world's forests are not survivors 
of the ice age, but appeared for the first time 
after its close. There were, too, during the 
later years of the reign of ice, tornadoes, floods, 
submergencies and upheavals of entire con- 
tinents. If, therefore, there were any survi- 
vors of the pre-glacial epoch among either the 
world's flora or fauna, they must have been 
extremely rare. 

IV. The Condition of the Earth just be- 
fore Man Appeared; the Scriptural 
Point of View. 

Preceding the creation of man there was a 
period that is represented in the Bible as no 
less disastrous than that occasioned by the 
ice age of geology. 

The following is a literal reading of Gen. 
1:1, 2: "In the beginning the Eternal cre- 
ated the heavens and the earth/ ' These words 
are the prelude of what follows. That "be- 
ginning " may have been, therefore, five hun- 
dred million or a thousand million years ago. 

The second verse is the one of chief impor- 
tance, whose literal rendering is this: "And 

Scriptural Point of View 81 

the earth had become [past perfect tense] tohu, 
a wreck and bohu, without inhabitant/ ' This 
desolate and tenantless condition agrees per- 
fectly with what science reports of the glacial 
epoch. And there can be little doubt on sci- 
entific grounds that during the break-up of 
the ice age a darkness denser than that of the 
densest London fogs was upon the face of the 

V. The Days of Creation and the Bible 

The hypothesis now offered is that after the 
devastations of the ice and drift epochs of 
geology, that appear to be identical in charac- 
ter and time with the desolate and tenantless 
condition of the earth described in the book of 
Genesis, began a series of new creations that 
continued through six literal days, the last of 
which witnessed the creation of existing mam- 
mals and man. The reading is explicit : " Then 
said the Eternal, Let the land bring forth the 
living breather after its kind, cattle, and creeper 
and beast of the land after its kind : and it was 
so. Then the Eternal made the beast of the 

82 Adam and Eve 

land after its kind and the cattle after their 
kind and every creeper of the soil after its 
kind; then the Eternal saw it was good. Then 
created the Eternal the man in his own image, 
in the image of the Eternal created he him: 
male and female created he them. Then was 
evening, then was morning; day sixth/ ' 

That the writer of the book of Genesis had 
in mind days of ordinary length, rather than 
the geological periods that had preceded and 
that evidently were prophetic of the six Bible 
days, cannot be reasonably questioned. The 
Hebrew word yom — limited by a-rav, evening, 
and ba-kar, morning — is never used in the 
Hebrew tongue to denote any period other 
than an ordinary day. 

This is the opinion of such well-known 
and distinguished Hebraists as Baumgarten, 
Culwer, Davidson, Hagenbach, Hedge, Keil, 
Kalish, Murphy, Rosenmuller and Dr. S. H. 
Turner in his " Commentary on Genesis/' 

The orthodox believer, taking the position 
that a passage of Scripture is to be interpreted 
as literal, unless a figurative meaning is clearly 
intended by the inspired writer, and that in 

Creation in Bible Record 83 

an account of historic events the literal and 
figurative interpretations must not be com- 
mingled, reaches this conclusion, — that in six 
literal days, and in the order given in the Bible, 
the Creator brought the world out of the chaos 
of the glacial wreck, made it habitable, created 
modern flora and fauna and gave them life 
and power to propagate themselves until the 
end of time. 19 

In other words, if there is in the universe, 
as few well-informed scientists now doubt, an 
eternal, all-powerful and infinitely wise Some- 
thing back of all visible phenomena, a first 
and adequate Cause of things, then the Bible 
record of a special intervention of that Cause 
in the creation of existing organized life is freed 
from every rational objection. And more than 
this such an intervention is supported by the 
most recent archaeological discoveries, by the 
very latest conclusions of geological science, by 
the results of modern anthropological, biological 
and philological studies and by the science of 
comparative ethics and theology. Therefore 
the book of Genesis, passing from under the 
shadow of myth, is entitled to a place among the 

84 Adam and Eve 

most credible and genuine historic literature of 
the world. 

VI. Christ in Eden and His Desire and 
Ability to Create Man. 

Bible theology likewise teaches that when 
the earth was in readiness, the author of life 
appeared in Eden, as he afterward did to holy 
men in the Hebrew commonwealth and later 
to the people of Judea during his incarnation, 
when he went about doing good, the friend of 
sinners, the lover and Saviour of men ; that the 
body in which he appeared on the day of man's 
creation was spiritual (comp. i Cor. 15: 40, 
44), and though in outward form it seemed 
precisely as human as the body that stood 
before Pilate and as the one that hung on the 
cross on Calvary, the outlines of which were not 
changed during the transfiguration and ascen- 
sion and will remain the same when he shall 
sit hereafter upon his throne of infinite glory 
and majesty, yet in it there was neither flesh 
nor blood; it visible to Adam, after his crea- 
tion, it was because of a special power granted 
to Ad^m, like that given the servant of Elisha 

Christ in Eden 85 

when he saw the chariots of Jehovah (2 Kings 
6: 17) and like that given the disciples on the 
mount when they saw Moses and Elijah (Mark 

Bible theology also teaches that Christ, be- 
fore Adam's creation, was moved by desire 
for the coming of a superior race of beings such 
as had had no existence in the physical uni- 
verse — a race that could " glorify God and 
enjoy him forever "; and that this desire of 
Christ found expression in words that broke 
the solitudes of Eden: " Let us make man in 
our image, after our likeness " (Gen. 1:26). 

And could not he who in Judea changed 
water into wine, fed multitudes with a handful 
of food, gave sight to the blind and hearing to 
the deaf; who cleansed lepers, raised from the 
dead the widow's son, the daughter of Jairus 
and his friend Lazarus; who laid down his 
own life and took it again; who, before his in- 
carnation, made worlds, filled the earth with 
animal and vegetable life, and who to-day is 
lifting the sin-cursed nations into his own 
marvelous light — could not he create a being 
something like himself, one who can contem- 

86 Adam and Eve 

plate and measurably appreciate the works of 
God and to whom the dominion of the world 
might fittingly be given, and do this without 
the slow process of natural selection or the 
survival of the fittest? Of his power there 
can be, at least in the minds of those who 
believe that he made the world and wrought 
miracles, no question. 


Whence the First Perfectly Developed Man; 
Supernatural Creation; Methods 

There remains the question of the specific 
method of creating man, which the theologian 
might excuse himself from discussing, having 
established the more important points at issue, 
were it not that the Bible has spoken quite 
specifically on this subject. 

Attention is called first to certain hypothe- 
ses that have been advanced, some of which, 
though involving the supernatural factor and 
measurably in harmony with what appears to 
be pretty well established in the realms of 
philosophy and science, are, however, at vari- 
ance with the Bible account. 

I. The Transformation of an Animal into 


The first of these questionable theories is 
that on the day of man's creation Christ ap- 
peared in Eden, or elsewhere on earth, and 


88 Adam and Eve 

transformed some animal of high order into 
man ; or, as the naturalist would say, a manlike 
animal jumped into manhood. 

It is claimed that this could have been done 
in one of two ways: First, the Creator could 
have spoken a word, or have given a com- 
mand, that would be followed by an immediate 
transformation. Second, the Creator, as it is 
claimed by an advocate of this transformation 
theory, could have selected an animal that 
somewhat resembles man; that he could have 
increased the size of the skull and brain, 
could have shortened the arms, could have 
changed its feet-like hands into real hands, 
and its hand-like feet into real feet, and then 
have given to this new thing ability and dis- 
position to stand upright, to think and talk. 

Upon a moment's reflection it would seem 
impossible for one to think of such a transfor- 
mation otherwise than as grotesque, if not 
positively repulsive. 

It is claimed, however, by the advocates of 
the theory, and perhaps the claim is correct, 
that this transformation from animal to man 
would be as really a creative act as if the change 

Bio plastic Creation 89 

had been by either a rapid or slow process 
from clay to man. Professor Dana, an advo- 
cate of theistic evolution, seems to have had 
such an hypothesis in mind when making this 
statement: " While admitting the derivation 
of man from an inferior species, I believe that 
there was a divine creative act at the origin of 
man and that the event was as truly a creation 
as if the change had been from earth, or inor- 
ganic matter, to man." 

But the serious objection to this theory is 
that it has not the slightest scientific support 
and does not harmonize with the teachings of 
the Bible. 

II. Bioplastic Creation. 

Another hypothesis that theistic biologists 
might consistently adopt is that the Creator 
took a handful of earth and converted it into 
living bioplasts like those that are now build- 
ing every part of the human body, and then 
commissioned them to do the work they 
have been doing ever since in building the 
bodies of living things, and that they formed 
in process of time the body of the first man 

90 Adam and Eve 

without any further interposition except that 
when the body was completed the breath of 
life was breathed into it by the Giver of all 

That the Creator could have brought into 
existence a number of bioplasts (or, for that 
matter, only one living germ or monad of 
humanity would have been needed) and 
have commissioned them, or it, to build the 
first human body, is not from a scientific point 
of view an altogether unreasonable hypothe- 
sis. But the orthodox objection to it is that 
it does not accord with the story of man's 
creation found in the book of Genesis. And 
while one is at liberty to propose any number 
of conjectures or hypotheses, yet before they 
can inspire confidence, to any considerable 
extent, they must be shown to be in harmony 
with the revelations of the Bible, and not at 
variance with established facts in the realms 
of nature. 

III. Creation by Word of Command. 

Still another hypothesis, somewhat less com- 
plicated than the preceding ones, — indeed, with 

Creation by Word of Command 91 

scarcely any complications at all, — is that man, 
without the aid of animal or bioplast, was an 
out-and-out creation. If this were the case, 
there was a moment when man was not. The 
Creator interposed and the next instant, as 
if by magic, man was. " At the nod of his 
will, noiseless and gentle, out of nothing he 
made all things and man." 

While this hypothesis appears to be in har- 
mony with the divine procedure in other cre- 
active acts (comp. Gen. 1:3, 6, 9, 11, 14, 20, 
24) ; and while there is this measure of scien- 
tific support, — that though in the development 
of the individual, whether man, brute or plant, 
the process is slow, yet the first appearance of 
any new species is always sudden and unex- 
pected ; and while this eruptive or jump theory 
does not exclude the interposition of the super- 
natural factor, still from a theological point 
of view it is confronted, like the others just 
mentioned, with the objection that it does not 
harmonize with the Bible record. And the 
intelligent orthodox believer, who holds that 
the revelations of the Bible when rightly inter- 
preted, and the disclosures of science when 

92 Adam and Eve 

firmly established, are never in conflict, is in 
no haste to accept views that are destitute of 
Bible support, though theologians may have 
pronounced in their favor and though they 
have a measure of scientific support. 20 


Method of Man's Creation Revealed in the 
Bible; His Physical Organism 

The method of man's creation that next 
claims attention is one that the sacred Scrip- 
tures the most manifestly teach, if they are 
interpreted as are other books, and no different 
method consistently can be adopted. Fol- 
lowing the Revised Version the reading is this : 
" And the Lord God formed man of the dust 
of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils 
the breath of life; and man became a living 
soul " (Gen. 2:7). 

I. Literal and Pictorial Interpretations. 

If, therefore, the literal, instead of the poetic, 
pictoric or scenic interpretation is adopted, 
especially if the full force of the Hebrew words 
is taken into account, and if one keeps in mind 
the Christology of the Bible, the meaning 
clearly is that there was a creative interven- 
tion at the hands of Christ so immediate as 
not to allow of any slow or tedious process like 


94 Adam and Eve 

that required by either theistic or naturalistic 
evolution. The method was essentially erup- 
tive. The language literally interpreted im- 
plies also that Christ did what artists at the 
outset of their work usually do, — made a 
model in clay, or from the soil of the earth, and 
when it was completed said to it, Become 
flesh ! And it became flesh. 

And in partial defence of this record it should 
be borne in mind that sometimes when Christ 
wrought miracles during his incarnation he 
employed media that were at hand. He called 
for water when he made wine for the marriage 
guests at Cana; he took in his hands the five 
loaves and two fishes of a child when he pro- 
vided food for five thousand men, besides 
women and children ; he used clay when he gave 
sight to a blind man (John 2:7; Matt. 14: 18; 
John 9:6). 

II. Man's Body Formed from Dust. 

While naturalism can raise objections to 
certain parts of the Bible narrative, though it 
should be modest, having no tenable theory 
of its own, yet there are other features of 

Man's Creation Revealed 95 

this hypothesis to which no reasonable natu- 
ralist can take exception. For instance, that 
the body of the first man, in some manner, was 
formed from the dust or soil of the earth is a 
statement to which naturalism can interpose 
no objection. Man is "of the earth, earthy M is 
no more a revelation of the New Testament 
than it is of approved science (comp. John 3: 
31 ; 1 Cor. 15 : 47) ; and the words " Then shall 
the dust return to the earth as it was : and the 
spirit shall return to God who gave it " are 
very fittingly written over the entrances of the 
largest and most costly cemeteries (Eccl. 12:7). 
The anatomical chemist, too, with his modern 
appliances and instruments, dissects and care- 
fully analyzes the human body; but as yet he 
is able to discover in it nothing except what 
is found in the dust of the ground. When, 
therefore, the skeptic sneers at what he calls 
the " mud-made man of the Bible," he may 
raise a laugh, but it is at his own expense ; his 
effort betrays his ignorance of what mud is, 
of what an artist can do with it, and of the 
fact that the human body is composed of it 
and of nothing else. Ruskin calls attention 

96 Adam and Eve 

to the fact that common mud in the street is 
composed of clay, sand, soot and water ; then he 
adds, " Clay may be changed into the radiance 
of the sapphire, sand into the beauty of the 
opal, soot into the glory of the diamond, and 
water may be crystallized into brilliant 
stars of snow." Mud! There is not a green 
carpet of grass in any field, not a tree with its 
leafage and fruitage anywhere on earth and 
not a flower that blooms that is not made of 
mud. And at this very hour science, espe- 
pecially owing to the phenomena of radio- 
activity, is in a greater state of wonder as to 
the essential properties of matter, or of mud, 
than ever before. 

The theory that the body of man was orig- 
inally formed out of mud, or, as the Bible 
more happily expresses it, out of the soil of 
the ground, is, therefore, no scientific absurdity, 
nor occasion for a joke or sneer. 

III. Man the Wonder of the Universe. 

And the shaping of that clay into a human 
form by the divine Artist, who was and is and 
ever shall be the maker of all things beautiful 

Man the Wonder of the Universe 97 

and wonderful on earth and in heaven, resulted, 
as naturalism is compelled to admit when it 
dares speculate in this field, in the most mar- 
velous structure that can be conceived by the 
human mind. 

Forcefully spoke Mr. Darwin: "Man is the 
wonder and glory of the universe " — a thought 
afterwards echoed by the late John Fiske in 
these words: " Science now forces us to the 
conclusion, much more clearly than ever be- 
fore, that man is chief among God's creatures.' ' 

Such is the scientific estimate of man's physi- 
cal organism. But the teaching of theology, 
now confirmed by those of archaeology, biol- 
ogy and geology, is that the human organism, 
the crowning and glorious work of creation, 
was at the start without defect or deformity. 
God pronounced it, with all else he had made, 
" very good " (Gen. 1:31). 

A more complete and royal type of man 
never has appeared on earth, is the teaching 
of orthodox theology. He was no monkey, 
nor baboon, nor did he have that kind of an- 
cestry. He bore from his first breath the 
stamp of a special and divine creation ; nor 

98 Adam and Eve 

were his immediate descendants the degraded 
peoples pictured by naturalism, but were 
capable of being the founders of empires, the 
masters of art, the possible heirs of God and 
joint heirs with Christ (Rom. 8: 17). 

IV. Instantaneous Change of Clay to 

And too, according to the Scriptural account 
of Adam's creation there was an instantaneous 
change from lifeless clay to living flesh; to 
which naturalism can interpose no objection, 
for all radical chemical changes are instanta- 
neous; such is the change of dead matter to 
living and of living matter to that which is 
dead. To this law the transformation or trans- 
lation of man's body on the last day, as we 
are told, likewise will conform; " changed in 
the twinkling of an eye " (1 Cor. 15:52). 

V. Possibility of Divine Interposition. 
While, therefore, creation by spontaneous 

generation, and evolution, both atheistic and the- 
istic, are confronted with insurmountable dif- 
ficulties, such a creation at the hands of Christ 
as the Bible describes is antagonized by nothing 

Possibility of Divine Interposition 99 

that is established in the realms of approved 
science and philosophy, provided that, for a 
rational purpose, the possibility of divine inter- 
position is granted. But Agassiz and Beale, 
Dana and Darwin, Lord Kelvin and Lotze, 
together with a multitude of other distin- 
guished scientists and philosophers have af- 
firmed as the outcome of their profoundest 
study and most mature thinking that such 
interposition is not only possible but abso- 
lutely necessary in order to account for the 
presence of man and of every other form of 
organized life on earth. 


Method of Man's Creation Revealed in the 

Bible; His Animal Life and 

Immortal Soul 

Thus far the discussion has been confined to 
a physical organism, but there must be added 
both animal life and an immortal soul before 
man, according to the teachings of theology, 
can be pronounced complete. 

I. Responsibilities Involved; the First 
They were these transcendent endowments 
that placed the gravest responsibility upon 
the one who conferred and the one who 
received them. Christ must have felt this 
in its fullness and awfulness. It was clear to 
him that if life and an immortal soul were added 
to that physical body, man could then curse 
God if he chose, though if he chose otherwise 
he could rise in excellence and majesty above 
the hierarchies of the angels. Christ, too, 
must have had in mind the tree in the garden 


Man's Degradation and Glory 101 

and the temptation. A test or trial of some 
sort he knew would be necessary for the devel- 
opment of human character. The fruit of 
that one tree was, therefore, for the time for- 
bidden. Any other tree in Eden might just 
as well have been selected, for it was the 
prohibition that was its chief and special 
characteristic, making of it " the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil " (Gen. 2 : 17). 

II. Christ's Vision of Man's Degradation 
and Glory. 

Christ must have foreknown the disobedi- 
ence, and the death penalty that would be 
inflicted upon both body and soul, that would 
show itself in pain, sickness, physical dissolu- 
tion and spiritual retribution. And, too, the 
bloody hand of Cain, the violence that was to 
fill the whole earth, the crimes, drunkenness, 
idolatry, ignorance, miseries, vices, wars and 
wretchedness of the human family from the 
beginning to the end, were in his vision. How, 
then, was it anything except the utmost unwis- 
dom for Christ to complete his work and add 
immortal life to that body of clay? 

102 Adam and Eve 

Let man have the human form, but remain 
like the baboon, an irresponsible animal, would 
seem from one point of view to be the more 
rational determination. 

But Christ foresaw other things. The blame- 
lessness of Seth, the nobleness of Enoch, the 
faithfulness of Abraham, the purity of Joseph, 
the trustfulness of Job, the greatness and 
gentleness of Moses, the splendid army of 
prophets, apostles, martyrs, reformers and a 
still larger army of redeemed ones, rising to 
higher than angelic altitudes, though their sins 
aforetime had brought them near enough to 
hell to leave their faces almost scorched by its 
fires — all these thronged his vision. Shall he, 
therefore, take the responsibility, complete his 
work and send the human race across the conti- 
nents and into eternity on its mission of com- 
bined degradation and glory? 

III. Provisions for Man's Restoration. 

But, according to the teachings of theology, 
there is much more to be considered. The one 
who creates must make provision for possible 
consequences. The fall and degradation of the 

Man's Restoration 103 

human race would necessitate a scheme of 
redemption. But redemption, in obedience to 
a universal law that every living thing lives 
by the death and sufferings of other things, 
demands sacrifice. 

The saving of any part of the human race 
meant for Christ, therefore, nothing less than 
a miraculous conception, a life of humiliation, 
of suffering and death. In other words, Christ's 
incarnation and crucifixion were the inevitable 
outcome of man's creation, sin and departure 
from God. All this was foreknown there in 
the garden of Eden as fully as if the scenes 
already were enacting, and Christ felt the agony 
almost as keenly as when the nails were driv- 
ing into his hands and feet on Golgotha. 

But Eden, Jerusalem, the mountains and seas 
of Galilee, the ignominy, the spear and cross 
were only a part of the vision of that hour. 

The throne, the kingdom of heaven with its 
"harpers harping with their harps, " and 
songs so majestic that mountains trembled, 
were clearly in Christ's vision on the day 
of man's creation. And "great voices" in 
heaven were foreheard saying, " The kingdoms 

104 Adam and Eve 

of this world are become the kingdoms of our 
Lord, and of his Christ ; and he shall reign for- 
ever and ever " (Rev. 15:3; n : 15). 

In full view of these conflicting forecasts of 
death on a cross and sublime majesty and 
sovereignty in heaven will Christ finish the 
work begun? Shall man be endowed with the 
breath of life and with an immortal soul? Shall 
all the prophesies in nature relating to man, 
extending from the earliest crystal, lichen and 
moss to monster mammals, be fulfilled ? Shall 
the earth have its king? Shall there be a cre- 
ated being whose " chief end is to glorify God 
and enjoy him forever? " 

IV. Endowment of Endless Life; Man's 

As Elijah bowed over the body of the dead 
child of the Zidonian widow, so Christ bowed 
before that first human form, breathed into its 
nostrils, and there began a life as deathless as 
that of God himself. This miracle of bestow- 
ing endless life appears to have been wrought 
mouth to mouth, as if Christ would wake man 
to consciousness " with a kiss on his lips." 

Man's Majesty and Solitariness 105 

And with the tenderness of that condescending 
and affectionate act Christ ever since has fol- 
lowed the children of men. 

Then, as one may suppose, Christ raised 
himself, took in his own the hand of that first 
man and said, " Adam, arise and stand upon 
thy feet." Adam arose and looked into the 
face of Christ. They were companions — the 
Creator and his first disciple and friend. 

Adam then listened to the sublimest commis- 
sion ever announced to a created being in this 
world, or perhaps in the universe, " Have do- 
minion over the fish of the sea, and over the 
fowl of the air, and over every living thing that 
moveth upon the earth/ ' and it was so (Gen. 

V. Man's Majesty and Solitariness in the 

The exalted position given to man, not only 
in this commission, but throughout the Bible, 
more than once has called forth ridicule, or a 
jest from the skeptic. And it may be said 
that quite generally, for perhaps seventy-five 
years, beginning at 1800, there was scarcely 

106 Adam and Eve 

a voice raised against the opinion that man is 
only a mote and that countless worlds in the 
physical heavens are peopled with innumer- 
able beings, some of whom in physical and 
intellectual endowments may be far superior 
to man. The song of the poet quite well ex- 
presses the attitude of the world of scholars 
and thinkers for centuries on this subject: 

Who is man and what his place? 

Anxious asks the heart perplext, 
In this recklessness of space. 

Worlds with worlds thus intermixt: 
What has he, this atom creature, 

In the infinitude of Nature? 

But various hints and suggestions found in 
the Bible led some though comparatively few 
scholarly theologians to conclude that Christ 
has visited no other planet nor star to work his 
miracle of giving life or of creating and redeem- 
ing human beings, and that therefore Christ 
has no representative made in his image any- 
where in the material universe except on this 
earth (comp. Rom. 8 : 14-17; 1 Cor. 6 : 15, 
19, 20; Gal. 4:7; 1 Pet. 1:12; Heb. 1:14; 
2:5, »)• 

Man's Majesty and Solitariness 107 

And no one need to be told that the sciences, 
especially those of astronomy, geology and 
psychology, are fast reaching the conclusion 
that " man must not only be set off against 
the animal kingdom, but against the whole of 
nature besides, as an equivalent," and that he 
is unique in the material universe. It would 
be difficult to point at the present time to 
any reputable philosopher or scientist who 
will take exception to the reasoning of Prof. 
James Dwight Dana, found in his last publi- 
cation : 

Man was the first being, in the geological succes- 
sion, capable of an intelligent survey of nature and a 
comprehension of her laws; the first capable of aug- 
menting his strength by bending nature to his serv- 
ice, rendering thereby a weak body stronger than all 
possible animal force; the first capable of deriving 
happiness from truth and goodness, or apprehend- 
ing eternal right, and of reaching toward a knowledge 
of self and God. . . . There is in man, therefore, a 
spiritual element in which the brute has no share. 
His power of indefinite progress, his thoughts and 
desires that look onward even beyond time, his recog- 
nition of spiritual existence and of a Divinity above, 
all evince a nature that partakes of the infinite and 

108 Adam and Eve 

VI. Evidence that Planets and Stars are 

Professor Proctor, eminent as an astronomer, 
who at one time (1874) was an advocate of a 
plurality of inhabited worlds and who says that 
he set out in his investigations " with the idea of 
maintaining what then was generally believed, 
that all the eight known planets of the solar 
system are inhabited,' ' a few years later changed 
his views entirely. These are his words: 

The new evidence, when properly examined, is 
found to oppose fatally instead of supporting the 
theory I had hoped to establish. I find abundant 
evidence that Jupiter cannot be the abode of any 
of the forms of life known on earth, or even of any 
akin to these. I find that Saturn too, upon recent 
evidence, is unfit for life. The analogies in which I 
had trusted as to the other planets I find in every 
instance to point in the reverse way from that in 
which I had been looking. 

Dr. Alfred Russel Wallace, spoken of as 
11 the dean of English scientists," who was the 
co-discoverer with Mr. Darwin of the law of 
evolution by natural selection, after having 
given a lifetime to the contemplation of these 

Planets and Stars Uninhabitable 109 

subjects, in a book just published, " Man's 
Place in the Universe/ ' says/* The conclusions 
I have reached have enormous probabilities 
in their favor/ ' The conclusions that bear 
especially upon the point under discussion are 
the following: 

First, that no other planet in the solar system 
than our earth is inhabited or inhabitable. Second, 
that the probabilities are almost as great against any 
other sun possessing inhabited planets. Third, that 
the solar system is situated in the plane of the Milky 
Way, not far removed from the center of that plane 
and that the earth is, therefore, nearly in the center 
of the stellar universe. Fourth, that the nearly 
central position of our sun is probably a permanent 
one and has been especially favorable, perhaps abso- 
lutely essential, to life-development on the earth. 

And Professor Beale, who had anticipated 
the conclusions of Dr. Wallace, has also within 
the past year spoken upon this same subject. 
He says: 

Can any satisfactory evidence be appealed to in 
support of the supposed existence of a living organ- 
ism, or a living particle of any kind, at this time in 
any other world than this? Can the advocates of 
such purely conjectural ideas support the contention 

no Adam and Eve 

of the existence of any living being of a siderial na- 
ture in any part of the cosmos? Is it not certain 
that up to this time the only living beings of which 
we have or can have cognizance and knowledge are 
those organisms which, like man himself, have been 
created in and inhabit this world? Could any ordi- 
nary living thing known to us retain its life for a 
moment under the conditions now known to exist 
in any nebula, star, sun or other like celestial body 
yet discovered? No thinker who has studied the 
facts of life and growth in any one living thing or the 
process of tissue formation, as it may be investigated 
in the animal or vegetable world, will admit that 
the dogma of the physical oneness of the universe is 
applicable to any kind or state of life. 

There is no evidence that these vast aggregates 
of lifeless material atoms have ever been for a 
moment through the ages the seat of one spark of 
life, or of the movements of one single living particle. 

Can we suppose that any living thing known to 
us here could approach within thousands of miles 
of the nearest of them? Has not the successful in- 
vestigation of the external part of many proved the 
presence of some of the most refractory substances 
known, being in a state of vapor, at a temperature 
which we of this world are unable to realize? Must 
not many, if not all, of these colossal collections of 
inorganic matter be destitute of water, in which case 
nothing which can in any way compare with one 

Planets and Stars Uninhabitable in 

single form of life known to us could possibly 
exist ? 

That some of the positions taken by Dr. Wal- 
lace and Professor Beale admit neither of proof 
nor disproof is evident enough; still, their 
strong convictions cannot fail in arresting the 
attention of thoughtful people, especially when 
these facts are taken into account — that no 
evidence can be adduced that is antagonistic 
to their views, and that so far as the solar sys- 
tem is concerned, Professor Proctor, Dr. Wal- 
lace and Professor Beale unquestionably voice 
the present concensus of scientific opinion the 
world over. 

Such, then, are the teachings of theology as 
to the creation and relative exaltation of Adam, 
and such the scientific evidence that mankind 
is enthroned not only in great majesty on this 
earth but also in the whole physical universe 
and for all time. 

" The earth is no goal, but 
Starting point for man/' 

Creation of Woman; Naturalistic Hypothesis 

I. Naturalism Little to Say. 

In this discussion no mention has been made 
thus far of the coming of woman into the world. 
Whether the subject has appeared of no special 
importance to scientific men or whether some 
peculiar difficulty surrounding it has led to 
silence may not be clear to common folk. Of 
late, however, the subject is coming into notice, 
and naturalism is troubled and beginning to 
press its fingers more firmly than ever upon 
its lips. There is not a shred of evidence to 
show that woman had her beginning, any more 
than did man, in spontaneous generation, or 
that she is the product of evolution, by natural 
selection or otherwise. In fact, one is safe in 
defying the whole world of naturalists to throw 
one solitary ray of light upon the origin of 
the first woman, independent of supernatural 
intervention and a sudden creation. 

Creation of Woman 113 

One of the troublesome difficulties in the 
case is the inability of naturalism to give any- 
rational explanation of how it happened that 
the first two human beings were male and 
female, instead of both being either males or 
females. The answers to this question offered 
by naturalism are not only entirely destitute 
of scientific support but frequently contradict 
one another. 

II. Creation of Woman First; then Man 
was Born. 

A theory advocated by several scientists has 
lead them to antagonize the Mosaic account 
on the ground that in order of time the crea- 
tion of woman ought to have preceded that of 
man. Those who entertain this view admit, 
however, that the Bible record has a measure 
of justification in the fact that the male, both 
among men and animals, is in some respects 
superior to the female, though this is not the 
case in Polynesia, Central Africa and in some 
other countries, where women in physical 
strength and prowess outrank men. And, too, 
the intuitions of woman are, as a rule, of higher 

H4 Adam and Eve 

order than those of man. Also from the mor- 
phological point of view it is argued that the 
female is far more essential and important to 
start with, and more ancient than the male. 

Prof. Lester Ward at some length, in his 
" Psychic Factors of Civilization,' ' soberly re- 
marks upon this relative importance and supe- 
riority of woman, contending that " the female 
is the race, the main central stock, while the 
male is but secondary and accessory.' ' 21 

But naturalistic evolutionists generally incline 
to the opinion that woman, instead of being the 
"main central stock/ ' is only a partly formed 
man; they give her this encouragement, which 
is a sort of insult, that if she will keep on 
developing she will become in process of time 
a full-fledged man. 

III. Hypothesis of " Ineffable Cleavage." 

In the ranks of naturalism, however, are 
those who are not yet ready to decide these 
questions of priority and superiority, and who, 
therefore, take refuge under the scientific 
phrase " ineffable cleavage," by which is meant 
that there was on a given day, or at a given 

" Ineffable Cleavage " 115 

moment, a sort of self-separation of man, 
man and woman being the outcome. 

This theory, adopted by no less an authority 
than Prof. Johann Peter Lange, was anticipated, 
however, by the ancient Hindoos, who left a 
tradition that the first human being was of 
both sexes, and there was a self -division in 
order to people the earth. 

A recent modification of this theory is that 
Adam and Eve were twins, of the Siamese 
type, and that the cleavage was simply the 
separation of the bone and cartilage that held 
them together. The naturalist who adopts 
this twin theory must assume, however, if true 
to his naturalism, that the first human pair 
were born in the usual way from some animal 
of high order, a monkey or baboon, or else that 
there was a " decisive mutation/ ' a new spe- 
cies jumping out of an existing one, resulting 
in the first two human beings. 

That the Creator could have made the 
woman first and man afterwards, or that by 
means of an " ineffable cleavage " woman, by 
miraculous intervention, could have been 
evolved or rather evicted from man, or that 

n6 Adam and Eve 

she could have been made in ten thousand other 
ways, no supernaturalist will deny. But the 
point is that there is no scientific evidence that 
supports any naturalistic theory yet advanced. 
There has been enough of ingenious guessing 
on this, as on several correlated subjects, but 
guesswork establishes nothing. The orthodox 
theologian, in the absence of any scien- 
tific evidence as to woman's creation, is, 
therefore, at liberty to set aside all naturalistic 
theories now held. 

If he chooses he may enter the realm of guess- 
work and should enjoy the same privileges as 
are granted the naturalist. Or if he chooses 
he may adopt a theory that conforms to the 
Bible narrative and advocate it without merit- 
ing a laugh, at least until naturalism is in 
position to take the floor, which is far from 
being the case at the present time. 

Creation of Woman; Bible Revelation 

Turning to the sacred Scriptures one dis- 
covers that what they say is dignified, impres- 
sive and in every way remarkable. 

And the Lord God said, It is not good that the 
man should be alone; I will make him an help meet 
for him. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to 
fall upon the man, and he slept ; and he took one of 
his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof : and 
the rib, which the Lord God had taken from the man, 
made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And 
the man said, This is now bone of my bones and flesh 
of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she 
was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave 
his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his 
wife: and they shall be one flesh. And they were 
both naked, the man and his wife, and were not 
ashamed (Gen. 2: 18, 21-25). 

I. Sleep of Adam Anticipatory of Modern 
Scientific Methods. 

In the Hebrew text the phrase " deep sleep " 
means entire unconsciousness. It will be 


n8 Adam and Eve 

noticed, therefore, that in this Bible account of 
woman's creation is anticipated one of the 
most eventful and merciful discoveries of 
modern surgical science, — the use of narcotics 
to deaden the sensibilities and induce sleep. 
The record goes on to say that after removing 
some part of the flesh and bone of the man, and 
after closing up the place thereof, Christ, out 
of that flesh, bone and blood of Adam, builded 
up the woman and, as theology teaches, en- 
dowed her, as he did Adam, with power of 
thought, speech and endless life. 

II. Marriage of Adam and Beginning of 

After this miracle of creating the woman 
had been wrought, the divine Christ, who, dur- 
ing his incarnation a few thousand years later, 
honored with his presence a marriage in Cana 
of Galilee and sanctioned it with the first of a 
series of miracles, brought the woman he had 
builded to Adam. There in the garden of Eden 
therefore was established by the Creator him- 
self the union of those first two human beings. 
This was the beginning of the human family 

Supremacy of Man 119 

and birth of society. By thus taking the 
woman almost from the heart of man, Christ 
in no other way so well could illustrate the 
sacred union that he intended should exist 
between husband and wife, a union so well 
established in the nature of things that any 
departure from it always is found destructive 
of the highest individual and national happi- 
ness and prosperity (comp. Matt. 19 14-6). 

And this criticised story of " the rib " is 
thus found to be profoundly suggestive, rational 
and self -consistent ; and until naturalism with- 
out resorting to guesswork is in position to 
offer a wiser solution of the origin of the human 
family, this Bible account may continue to 
hold in the faith of the Christian world the 
place it has occupied for centuries, cherished 
not as a beautiful and pictorial myth, but as 
authentic and divinely revealed history. 

III. Future and Endless Supremacy of 


In loyalty to Christ this remains to be said, 
that he not only is the Creator of man, but 
has done for him the utmost that infinite love, 

120 Adam and Eve 

sacrifice and wisdom can do. With suprem- 
est interest and tenderness he is still watching 
man's daily conduct and progress. With di- 
vine patience and solicitude he stands at the 
door of every human heart and waits, pleading 
for the privilege of bestowing a heavenly life 
upon the immortal soul that had forfeited its 
birthright by sin and transgression. 

Christ has made, too, every provision possible 
for the ceaseless development of man in realms 
of greater magnificence and magnitude than 
have yet been dreamed of by any of the 
world's philosophers (i Cor. 2: 9). Not only 
is the freedom of the city of God promised to 
the redeemed of the human race but the inheri- 
tance of all things is likewise assured (Luke 
22: 29; Rom. 8: 32; 1 Cor. 3: 21, 22). 

And man, who has had dominion on the earth 
since the day of his creation, is to be advanced 
in kingship, and in the endless and infi- 
nite though now invisible universe is to have 
joint authority with the Creator, when the 
earth, which he now rules, shall be no more. 
" To him that overcometh will I grant to sit 
with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, 

Man's Dominion 121 

and am set down with my Father in his 
throne " (Rev. 3: 21). 

"Are they not all ministering spirits, sent 
forth to minister for them who shall be heirs 
of salvation ?" (Heb. 1:14.) 

" Know ye not that we shall judge angels? " 
(1 Cor. 6:3.) 

" And above the firmament that was over 
their heads was the likeness of a throne, as 
the appearance of sapphire stone : and upon the 
likeness of the throne was the likeness as the 
appearance of a man above upon it " (Ezek. 
1: 26). 

Thou mighty Monarch! 

The universe thy dominion. 
Arch-Angels serve thee. 

O son of God! Thy name — is Man. 


I. (Page 3.) It may be worth while to note that 
though only a few names appear in the Bible list from 
Adam to Noah, yet it is estimated that even before the 
murder of Abel, which was one hundred and thirty years 
after the creation of Adam, there were upwards of four 
hundred thousand male descendants of Adam, to say 
nothing of women and small children; these peoples mi- 
grating here and there gave abundant opportunity for 
Cain to find a wife beyond the confines of his own immedi- 
ate neighborhood and outside his more closely related 

II. (Page 8.) In harmony with Gen. 1 : 11, 12, 
20, 21, geology favors the eruptive appearance of the 
lower orders of animal and of vegetable life, but not of 
the human family (comp. Gen. 2 : 1, 6; 3 : 20; 10 : 32; 
Acts 17 : 20). And while excavations, especially in Pales- 
tine and India, in Europe and America, show a somewhat 
sudden appearance of the human race, still there is nothing 
in this fact that affords any standing for the eruptive 
theory of humanity in the face of the biological and 
historical objections that confront it. 

III. (Page 11.) To the foregoing quotations may be 
added the following: In a treatise entitled " Natural His- 
tory," Georges Louis L. Buff on, after a careful review of 
facts that remain unchanged and unchallenged since his 
day, employs these words: " There was originally but 
one human species, which after multiplying and spread- 
ing on the whole surface of the earth, has undergone vari- 
ous changes by the influences of climate, food, mode of 
living, epidemic diseases and the mixture of dissimilar 

In a book entitled " Physical History of Man," Dr. 
James C. Prichard, after careful study of the character- 


124 Notes 

istics and endowments of different races and tribes, 
reached the conclusion that " all human races are of one 
species and one family." 

IV. (Page 14.) During the past year (1903) caves 
were examined in Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ala- 
bama, Virginia, Maryland and Pennsylvania. Professor 
Holmes discovered plenty of human relics, but all of them 
were Indian. 

He says: " The bones of all recent animals are found 
in the caves in this country; likewise those of many ani- 
mals long ago extinct, such as the giant sloth and a large 
species of tapir. Remains of early man, more ancient 
than the Indians, however, seem to be wholly absent. 

" There is no evidence at all to prove that man is very 
ancient on this continent. All ascertained facts seem to 
point to the conclusion that no human being preceded the 
Indians in America. Where the Indians came from is 
uncertain, but they are surely derived from the same an- 
cestry as the Asiatic Mongols. Their straight, black 
hair, physiognomy and other physical traits show that." 

Professor Holmes bases his reasoning and conclusion 
in part upon the fact that " the great ice sheet of the gla- 
cial epoch spread itself over the northern parts of Asia 
and America three hundred thousand years ago, and that 
it was not withdrawn until ten thousand years ago, 
approximately. ' ' 

He also says that " the ice sheet covered Wisconsin ten 
thousand years ago," and that so long as the glacial ice 
covered our northern and western states " it would 
seem to have been impossible for primitive human beings, 
without houses or means of keeping themselves warm, 
to make the journey by way of Behring Strait and down 
the Pacific coast to warmer latitudes." 

V. (Page 19.) It should be borne in mind that the 
Scriptures, owing to the Hebrew methods of computing 
the genealogy of families, afford no exact data in matters 

Notes 125 

of chronology. The most that can be said is that the 
different tables now in use are probably approximately 

VI. (Page 19.) Comp. Gen. 6:4; Num. 13:33; 
Deut. 1 : 28, which are in harmony with the reports of 
geology as to the gigantic Cro-Magnon race. 

VII. (Page 24.) Mrs. D'Osbeney is the discoverer 
of a papyrus in Egypt, now in the British Museum, bear- 
ing an inscription that shows the estimate placed upon 
literary manuscripts: " May the god Toth [the god of 
literature] guard all the words contained in this scroll 
from destruction." 

VIII. (Page 25.) The art of weaving in primitive 
times has peculiar interest from the fact that it was very 
extensively in use. Job lamented that his days were 
swifter than the weaver's shuttle, the use of the simile 
proving that the shuttle was well known in his time. 

The ancient Mexicans and Peruvians were skilled 
weavers. It is a statement easily verified that few if 
any savage races have been discovered altogether igno- 
rant of the art, and many of them brought it to a consider- 
able degree of perfection. Portions of woven cloth and 
a weaver's shuttle have been found among the remains 
of the lake dwellings, and as the latter are believed to 
belong to the stone age, it would seem pretty well estab- 
lished that the art of weaving is coincident with the exist- 
ence of man. 

IX. (Page 31.) An explanation of the fact that little 
is said of immortality, in the Pentateuch is that it was a 
subject too familiar to call for special mention and that 
duties to the dead were absorbing the thought and energy 
of the Egyptians to such extent as to lead them to forget 
and neglect duties to the living, an evil that Moses wished 
to correct. 

X. (Page 32.) The moral code of the Egyptians 

i 2 6 Notes 

consisted of forty- two commandments or heads, under 
which all sins might be classed. An inscription on a tomb 
at Beni-Hassan, written about 2500 B.C., reads thus: " I 
have not oppressed any widow. No prisoner languished 
in my days. No one died of hunger. I gave food to the 
inhabitants, so that there was no hungry person. I gave 
the widow equal portions with the married. I did not 
prefer the rich to the poor." 

In a very ancient collection of maxims is this reading: 
11 Maltreat not an inferior. Let your wife find in you 
her protector; maltreat her not. Save not thine own 
life at the cost of another." 

In a biographic sketch (4000 b.c.) is a beautiful type 
of Christian philanthropy: " Wandering I wandered and 
was hungry; bread was set before me. I fled from the land 
naked; there was given me fine linen." 

On the tomb of a man at El Kalb (4000 B.C.) it is re- 
corded with commendation that he " never left home 
with anger in his heart." 

XI. (Page 37.) Mr. Darwin appears to class himself 
with theistic evolutionists. He says: " I believe that 
all animals have descended from, at most, only four or 
five progenitors, and plants from, an equal or lesser num- 
ber. . . . Probably all organic beings which have ever 
lived on this earth have descended from some one pri- 
mordial form, into which life was first breathed." Here 
is an admission that there was an outside one or some- 
thing that breathed into things a primitive life. 

XII. (Page 38.) Dr. Buchner states the atheistic 
formula thus: " Matter is the origin of all that exists; 
all natural and mental forces are inherent in it. Nature, 
the all-engendering and all-devouring, is its own begin- 
ning and end, birth and death. She produces man by 
her own power and takes him again." 

Professor Agassiz states the theistic view of evolution 
thus: M All these beginnings do not exist in consequence 



of the continued agency of physical causes but have made 
their successive appearances upon the earth by the im- 
mediate intervention of the Creator." 

XIII. (Page 49.) The following is the statement of 
Professor Virchow, to which Professor Tyndall refers: 
" Whoever calls to mind the lamentable failure of all 
attempts made very recently to discover a decided sup- 
port for the theory that lower forms are transmuted into 
higher ones will feel it doubly serious to demand that 
this theory, so utterly discredited, should be in any form 
accepted as the basis of our views of life." 

XIV. (Page 53.) The close relation between water 
and life is also a matter of Bible revelation (Gen. 1: 2, 20; 
2: 5, 6; Rev. 22: 17). 

XV. (Page 62.) To the above-named anti-evolu- 
tionists are to be added the following, some of whom 
have but recently rejected the theory of evolution. The 
noted geologist Professor Rutemeyer has just written a 
book especially directed against Haeckel, in which he 
charges him with " playing false with the public and with 
the natural sciences." Dr. Goette, the Strasburg pro- 
fessor, has published in the Unschau (1903) a natural 
history of Darwinism, which he says has passed through 
four stages, namely: " (1) The beginnings, when it was 
received with great enthusiasm; (2) the period in which 
it flourished and found general acceptance; (3) the 
period of transition and sober second thought, when its 
principles and teachings were called into question; (4) 
the final period, upon which the scientific world has just 
entered and when its days will evidently soon be num- 

The veteran and anti-Christian philosopher Edward 
von Hartmann, writing under the title " Der Niedergang 
der Darwinismus " (The Passing of Darwinism, 1903), 
gives a history of Darwinism siirilarto that of Dr. Goette: 
" In the sixties of the past century the opposition of the 

1 28 Notes 

older group of savants to the Darwinian hypothesis was 
still supreme. In the seventies the new idea began to 
gain ground rapidly in all cultured countries. In the 
eighties Darwin's influence was at its height and exer- 
cised an almost absolute control over technical research. 
In the nineties, for the first time, a few timid expressions 
of doubt and opposition were heard, and these gradually 
swelled into a great chorus of voices, aiming at the over- 
flow of the Darwinian theory. In the first decade of the 
twentieth century it has become apparent that the days 
of Darwinism are numbered. Among its latest oppo- 
nents are such savants as Eimer, Gustav Wolf, De Vries, 
Hoocke, Von Wellstein, Fleischmann, Reinke and many 

Edward Hoppe, called " the Hamburg savant," within 
a few months has written a pamphlet taking a pronounced 
position in the name of religion against the naturalistic 
type of Darwinism. 

Professor Zoeckler of the University of Greifswald in 
a recent number of Beweis des Glaubens, affirms that 
11 the claim that the hypothesis of descent is secured 
scientifically must most decidedly be denied/ ' 

Dr. E. Dennert, in a publication entitled " Vom Ster- 
belalager des Darwinismus " (1903) (At the Death-bed 
of Darwinism) after giving the views of a dozen or more 
eminent scientists who are opposed to the Darwinian 
philosophy, concludes with these words: " A survey of 
the field shows that Darwinism in its old form is becom- 
ing a matter of history, and that we are actually witness- 
ing its death struggle." 

The eminent scientist Professor Paulson, of Berlin, 
recently declared that Haeckers reasoning as to materi- 
alistic evolution " is a disgrace to the philosophy of Ger- 

Prof. Wilhelm Max Wundt, of Leipsic, who stands at 
the head of German psychologists, wrote books in his 
earlier days supporting views held by Haeckel, but in a 

Notes 129 

late publication characterizes those early writings as " the 
great crime of his youth that will take him all the rest 
of his life to expiate," and so, says Haeckel, "he is now 
writing the other thing." 

XVI. (Page 64.) The hypothesis of La Peyrere, a 
Dutch ecclesiastic, since advocated by Professor Win- 
chell, that the modern black man is a descendant of a 
race of pre- Adamites, need not be discussed not only be- 
cause it is confronted by very serious objections, but also 
because it has no friends. And besides, the events that 
followed the building and destruction of the tower of Babel 
will account for certain radical racial characteristics; and 
it should also be said that neither La Peyrere nor Winchell 
claims that the Adamic race originated from those hy- 
pothetical black pre- Adamites, but had an independent 
and a special creation. 

XVII. (Page 69.) A few years ago naturalists quite 
generally made much out of a theory, still held by a few 
belated scientists, that before reaching the human form 
man in the embryonic state passes through the different 
stages of worm, fish, reptile and quadruped. It was 
insisted that this fact is unanswerable evidence that the 
human race has been evolved from these lower orders — 
the worm, fish, reptile and quadruped. The facts are 
that while these lower forms of life obviously are sugges- 
tive and prophetic, or, better, are types or patterns accord- 
ing to which higher and more elaborate and more perfect 
organisms are created, yet there is not a ghost of evidence 
that from them there ever has been or ever can be any- 
thing to maintain the theory of evolution. 

XVIII. (Page 77.) A fuller discussion of this subject 
will be found in the author's " Evolution or Creation," 
pp. 243-259. 

XIX. (Page &$.) This subject is more fully dis- 
cussed in the author's " Evolution or Creation," pp. 



XX. (Page 92.) There are interesting myths among 
different peoples, a few of which may be noted. In the 
Babylonian legends is one that shows some similarity to 
the hypothesis of bioplastic and self-sacrificing creation. 
Dr. Pinche's translation is the following: " The deity, 
Belus, cut off his own head; thereupon the other gods 
mixed the blood, as it gushed out, with earth; from that 
mixture man was formed." The Chinchas of South 
America have a tradition of a progressive creation. A 
chief among those people nearly a century ago told a 
traveler that one deity created man imperfectly, leaving 
him with closed eyes and mouth and immovable hands 
and feet. But a second and more kindly god opened 
his eyes and gave power of motion to his feet and hands, 
and then taught him to make tools. The Sioux Indians 
appear to have had a sort of eruptive and transformative 
theory of man's creation, judging from one of their myths. 
They ray that the Great Spirit took a stone to hurl at a 
serpent, but suddenly changed his mind and transformed 
the stone into a man. 

XXI. (Page 114.) This view is not so new or original 
as one might think. Some of the North American 
Indians say that the first person on earth was a woman. 
After her came a dog; later a big man, who made lakes 
and ponds, filled them with water and then tore the dog 
in pieces, with which he made other animals. Over these 
he gave control to the woman and her offspring. The 
big man figures here as a sort of creator, though the story 
does not tell who created the woman and dog. 

A story of the Iroquois and Hurons reports that the 
human race sprang from a woman that fell from heaven 
and lighted on a turtle. 

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